Politics of Germany
Germany is a democratic, federal parliamentary republic, where federal legislative power is vested in the Bundestag (the parliament of Germany) and the Bundesrat (the representative body of the Länder, Germany's regional states).
Political System of the Federal Republic of Germany
Politisches System der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)
|Polity type||Federal democratic parliamentary republic|
|Constitution||Basic Law for Germany|
|Name||Bundestag and Bundesrat|
|Meeting place||Reichstag building|
|Presiding officer||Wolfgang Schäuble, President of the Bundestag|
|Head of State|
|Head of Government|
|Name||Cabinet of Germany|
|Current cabinet||Cabinet Merkel IV|
|Deputy leader||Vice Chancellor|
|Name||Judiciary of Germany|
|Federal Constitutional Court|
|Chief judge||Stephan Harbarth|
|Seat||Seat of the Court, Karlsruhe|
The multilateral system has, since 1949, been dominated by the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). The judiciary of Germany is independent of the executive and the legislature, while it is common for leading members of the executive to be members of the legislature as well. The political system is laid out in the 1949 constitution, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law), which remained in effect with minor amendments after German reunification in 1990.
The constitution emphasizes the protection of individual liberty in an extensive catalogue of human and civil rights and divides powers both between the federal and state levels and between the legislative, executive and judicial branches.
West Germany was a founding member of the European Community in 1958, which became the EU in 1993. Germany is part of the Schengen Area, and has been a member of the eurozone since 1999. It is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20 and the OECD.