Politics of Hungary


Politics of Hungary takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic. The Prime Minister is the head of government of a pluriform multi-party system, while the President is the head of state and holds a largely ceremonial position.

Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the parliament. The party system since the last elections is dominated by the conservative Fidesz. The two larger oppositions are Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) and Jobbik; there are also opposition parties with no formal faction but representation in parliament (e. g. Politics Can Be Different) The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

Hungary is an independent, democratic and constitutional state, which has been a member of the European Union since 2004. Since 1989 Hungary has been a parliamentary republic. Legislative power is exercised by the unicameral National Assembly that consists of 199 members. Members of the National Assembly are elected for four years.

The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Hungary a "flawed democracy" in 2020.[1]

Executive branch


Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President János Áder Fidesz 10 May 2012
Prime Minister Viktor Orbán Fidesz 29 May 2010

The President of the Republic, elected by the National Assembly every five years, has a largely ceremonial role, but he is nominally the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces and his powers include the nomination of the Prime Minister who is to be elected by a majority of the votes of the members of Parliament, based on the recommendation made by the president of the Republic. If the president dies, resigns or is otherwise unable to carry out his duties, the Speaker of the National Assembly becomes acting president.

Due to the Hungarian Constitution, based on the post-World War II Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany, the prime minister has a leading role in the executive branch as he selects Cabinet ministers and has the exclusive right to dismiss them (similarly to the competences of the German federal chancellor). Each cabinet nominee appears before one or more parliamentary committees in consultative open hearings, survive a vote by the Parliament and must be formally approved by the president.

In Communist Hungary, the executive branch of the People's Republic of Hungary was represented by the Council of Ministers.

Legislative branch


Parliament of Hungary.

The unicameral, 199-member National Assembly (Országgyűlés) is the highest organ of state authority and initiates and approves legislation sponsored by the prime minister. Its members are elected for a four-year term. The election threshold is 5%, but it only applies to the multi-seat constituencies and the compensation seats, not the single-seat constituencies.

Political parties and elections


Party Party lists FPTP Total
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats Seats ±
Fidesz–KDNP2,824,55149.27422,636,20147.89911330
Jobbik – Movement for a Better Hungary1,092,80619.06251,276,84023.20126+3
Hungarian Socialist PartyDialogue for Hungary682,70111.9112622,45811.31820–10
Politics Can Be Different404,4297.067312,7315.6818+3
Democratic Coalition308,1615.386348,1766.3339+5
Momentum Movement175,2293.06075,0331.3600New
Hungarian Two Tailed Dog Party99,4141.73039,7630.7200New
Together37,5620.66058,5911.0611–2
National Self-Government of Germans in Hungary26,4770.4611+1
Hungarian Workers' Party15,6400.27013,6130.25000
Family Party10,6410.1909,8390.18000
Hungarian Justice and Life Party8,7120.1506,8970.13000
Party for a Fit and Healthy Hungary7,3090.1305,5230.10000
National Self-Government of Gypsies5,7030.10000
Tenni Akarás Mozgalom5,3120.0901,1770.0200New
Gypsy Party of Hungary4,1090.0703,7000.07000
Common Ground3,8940.0703,3190.0600New
For Hungary's Poor People3,0480.0503,2830.0600New
We need Cooperation Party2,7220.0502,6590.0500New
Iránytű2,0010.0301,6790.0300New
National Self-Government of Croats1,7430.03000
Order Party1,7080.0301,4160.03000
Unity Party1,4070.0203,1670.06000
Medete Party1,2920.0202,1660.0400New
National Self-Government of Slovaks1,2450.0200New
EU.ROM1,0030.0201,4710.03000
NP1,1000.0207130.0100New
National Self-Government of Russians5390.0100New
National Authority of Roma in Hungary4280.01000
National Self-Government of Serbs2960.01000
National Self-Government of Ukrainians2700.00000
National Self-Government of Poles2100.00000
National Self-Government of Slovenes1990.00000
National Authority of Hungarian Churches1590.00000
National Self-Government of Armenians1590.00000
National Self-Government of Bulgarians1040.00000
The Motherland Party1,9800.04000
Democratic Party1,6790.0300New
Independent Smallholders' Party1,5800.03000
Lendülettel1,3770.0300New
Miszep1,1580.0200New
Go Hungary!1,1200.0200New
Értünk Értetek1,0330.0200New
ÚMF7800.0100New
Nation and Peace7670.0100New
Modern Hungary Movement6170.0100New
OP6130.0100New
SZP5540.0100New
Democratic Party for Hungary4980.0100New
IMA4770.0100New
MINŐKP4110.0100New
NEEM3500.0100New
TAMP3440.0100New
EMMO3160.0100New
HHP2550.0000New
DMP2480.0000New
EP2440.00000
JÓ ÚT MPP2260.0000New
AQP1920.00000
ECDP1870.0000New
Everyone's Homeland1800.0000New
ERP1690.0000New
ÉBMP1680.0000New
Hungarian Democratic Union1490.0000New
OCP1250.0000New
KEDN1180.0000New
Opre Roma1140.0000New
MMM1040.0000New
FITIP910.0000New
JMP640.0000New
National Greens530.0000New
Oxygen Party370.0000New
Civil Movement350.0000New
KPP350.0000New
HAM220.0000New
NOP180.00000
EU Alternative150.0000New
Independents55,6121.0111+1
Total5,732,283100935,504,5301001061990
Valid votes5,732,28398.97
Invalid/blank votes59,5851.03
Total5,791,868100
Registered voters/turnout8,312,17370.22
Source: National Election Office

Judicial branches


Constitutional Court of Hungary.

A fifteen-member Constitutional Court has power to challenge legislation on grounds of unconstitutionality. This body was last filled in July 2010. Members are elected for a term of twelve years.

The president of the Supreme Court of Hungary and the Hungarian civil and penal legal system he leads is fully independent of the Executive Branch.

The Attorney General or Chief Prosecutor of Hungary is currently fully independent of the Executive Branch, but his status is actively debated

Several ombudsman offices exist in Hungary to protect civil, minority, educational and ecological rights in non-judicial matters. They have held the authority to issue legally binding decisions since late 2003.

Financial branch


The central bank, the Hungarian National Bank was fully self-governing between 1990 and 2004, but new legislation gave certain appointment rights to the Executive Branch in November 2004 which is disputed before the Constitutional Court.

Administrative divisions


Hungary is divided in 19 counties (megyék, singular – megye), 23 urban counties* (megyei jogú városok, singular – megyei jogú város), and 1 capital city** (főváros); Bács-Kiskun, Baranya, Békés, Békéscsaba*, Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Budapest**, Csongrád, Debrecen*, Dunaújváros*, Eger*, Érd*, Fejér, Győr*, Győr-Moson-Sopron, Hajdú-Bihar, Heves, Hódmezővásárhely*, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvár*, Kecskemét*, Komárom-Esztergom, Miskolc*, Nagykanizsa*, Nógrád, Nyíregyháza*, Pécs*, Pest, Salgótarján*, Somogy, Sopron*, Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, Szeged*, Szekszárd*, Székesfehérvár*, Szolnok*, Szombathely*, Tatabánya*, Tolna, Vas, Veszprém, Veszprém*, Zala, Zalaegerszeg*

Involvement in International Organisations


Hungary is a member of the ABEDA, Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, CERN, CEPI EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (member, as by 1 May 2004), FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, ITUC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNOMIG, UNU, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, Visegrád group, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, and the Zangger Committee.

Ministries


Note: with restructuring and reorganization, this information may change even within a governmental period.

Ministries of Hungary[2]
English nameHungarian nameMinister
The Prime Minister's OfficeMiniszterelnökségGergely Gulyás
The Prime Minister's Cabinet OfficeA Miniszterelnöki KabinetirodaAntal Rogán
Ministry of Home AffairsBelügyminisztériumSándor Pintér
Ministry of DefenceHonvédelmi MinisztériumTibor Benkő
Ministry of Human ResourcesEmberi Erőforrások MinisztériumaMiklós Kásler
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and TradeKülgazdasági és KülügyminisztériumPéter Szijjártó
Ministry of JusticeIgazságügyi MinisztériumJudit Varga
Ministry of FinancePénzügyminisztériumMihály Varga
Ministry of agricultureAgrárminisztériumIstván Nagy
Ministry of Innovation and TechnologyInnovációs és Technológiai MinisztériumLászló Palkovics

Ministers without portfolio

Notes


    References


    1. "Democracy Index 2020". Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
    2. Website of the Prime Minister's Office. Retrieved 31 January 2010.