Politics of Mexico

The politics of Mexico take place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic whose government is based on a congressional system, whereby the President of Mexico is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. The federal government represents the United Mexican States and is divided into three branches: executive, legislative and judicial, as established by the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States, published in 1917. The constituent states of the federation must also have a republican form of government based on a congressional system as established by their respective constitutions.

Politics of Mexico

Política de México
Polity typeFederal presidential constitutional republic
ConstitutionConstitution of Mexico
Legislative branch
NameCongress
TypeBicameral
Meeting placeLegislative Palace of San Lázaro
Upper house
NameSenate
Presiding officerMónica Fernández Balboa, President of the Senate
Lower house
NameChamber of Deputies
Presiding officerDulce María Sauri Riancho, President of the Chamber of Deputies
Executive branch
Head of State and Government
TitlePresident
CurrentlyAndrés Manuel López Obrador
AppointerDirect popular vote
Cabinet
NameCabinet of Mexico
LeaderPresident
AppointerPresident
HeadquartersNational Palace
Ministries19
Judicial branch
Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation
Chief judgeArturo Zaldívar Lelo de Larrea
Federal Electoral Tribunal
Chief judgeFelipe Alfredo Fuentes Barrera

The executive power is exercised by the executive branch, which is headed by the President, advised by a cabinet of secretaries that are independent of the legislature. Legislative power is vested upon the Congress of the Union, a two-chamber legislature comprising the Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies. Judicial power is exercised by the judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation, the Council of the Federal Judiciary and the collegiate, unitary and district tribunals.

The politics of Mexico are dominated by four political parties: Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), National Action Party (PAN), Democratic Revolution Party (PRD),[1] and the National Regeneration Movement (MORENA). Founded in 1929 as the Partido Nacional Revolucionario ("National Revolutionary Party"), PRI has dominated Mexican politics for over 70 years.[2] PAN was founded in 1939, but it did not win its first governorship until 1989; its candidates won the presidency in 2000 and 2006.[3] The beginnings of PRD go back to 1988 when dissident members of PRI decided to challenge the leadership and nominated Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas for president of Mexico. Cardenas lost in a highly contested election, but a new political party was born and the party emerged as a third force in Mexican politics, even though they have never captured the presidency.[4] MORENA grew out of a dispute between Andrés Manuel López Obrador and other leaders of PRD after his loss in the 2012 presidential election. MORENA won its official recognition in 2014, and dominated the 2018 elections.[5]

According to a survey by the National Autonomous University of Mexico in 2017, 74 percent of Mexicans believe that Mexico's electoral system is not transparent and distrust official results.[6]