Politics of Turkey

The politics of Turkey take place in the framework of a presidential republic as defined by the Constitution of Turkey. The President of Turkey is both the head of state and head of government.

Politics of Turkey

Türkiye'de siyaset
Polity typeUnitary presidential constitutional republic
ConstitutionConstitution of Turkey
Legislative branch
NameGrand National Assembly
Meeting placeParliament Building
Presiding officerMustafa Şentop, Speaker of the Grand National Assembly
Executive branch
Head of State and Government
CurrentlyRecep Tayyip Erdoğan
AppointerDirect popular vote
NameCouncil of Ministers
Current cabinetCabinet Erdoğan IV
Deputy leaderVice President
HeadquartersPresidential Complex
Judicial branch
NameJudicial system
Constitutional Court
Chief judgeZühtü Arslan
Council of State
Chief judgeZeki Yiğit
Court of Cassation
Chief judgeMehmet Akarca

Turkey's political system is based on a separation of powers. Executive power is exercised by the Council of Ministers, which is appointed and headed by the President. Legislative power is vested in the Grand National Assembly. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Its current constitution was adopted on 7 November 1982 after a constitutional referendum.

Major constitutional revisions were passed by the National Assembly on 21 January 2017 and approved by referendum on 16 April 2017. The reforms, among other measures, abolished the position of Prime Minister and designated the President as both head of state and government, effectively transforming Turkey from a parliamentary regime into a presidential one.

The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Turkey a "hybrid regime" in 2019.[1][needs update]