Polyester

Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in every repeat unit of their main chain.[1] As a specific material, it most commonly refers to a type called polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Polyesters include naturally occurring chemicals, in plants and insects, as well as synthetics such as polybutyrate. Natural polyesters and a few synthetic ones are biodegradable, but most synthetic polyesters are not. Synthetic polyesters are used extensively in clothing.

Ester group (blue) which defines polyesters.
Close-up of a polyester shirt
SEM picture of a bend in a high-surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section

Polyester fibers are sometimes spun together with natural fibers to produce a cloth with blended properties. Cotton-polyester blends can be strong, wrinkle- and tear-resistant, and reduce shrinking. Synthetic fibers using polyester have high water, wind and environmental resistance compared to plant-derived fibers. They are less fire-resistant and can melt when ignited.[2]

Liquid crystalline polyesters are among the first industrially used liquid crystal polymers. They are used for their mechanical properties and heat-resistance. These traits are also important in their application as an abradable seal in jet engines.[3]

Natural polyesters could have played a significant role in the origins of life.[4] Long heterogeneous polyester chains and membraneless structures are known to easily form in a one-pot reaction without catalyst under simple prebiotic conditions.[5][6]