Polymer

A polymer (/ˈpɒlɪmər/;[4][5] Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a substance or material consisting of very large molecules, or macromolecules, composed of many repeating subunits.[6] Due to their broad spectrum of properties,[7] both synthetic and natural polymers play essential and ubiquitous roles in everyday life.[8] Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene to natural biopolymers such as DNA and proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many small molecules, known as monomers. Their consequently large molecular mass, relative to small molecule compounds, produces unique physical properties including toughness, high elasticity, viscoelasticity, and a tendency to form amorphous and semicrystalline structures rather than crystals.

Appearance of real linear polymer chains as recorded using an atomic force microscope on a surface, under liquid medium. Chain contour length for this polymer is ~204 nm; thickness is ~0.4 nm.[1]
IUPAC definition

A polymer is a substance composed of macromolecules.[2] A macromolecule is a molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.[3]

The term "polymer" derives from the Greek word πολύς (polus, meaning "many, much") and μέρος (meros, meaning "part"), and refers to large molecules whose structure is composed of multiple repeating units, from which originates a characteristic of high relative molecular mass and attendant properties.[3] The units composing polymers derive, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.[3] The term was coined in 1833 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius, though with a definition distinct from the modern IUPAC definition.[9][10] The modern concept of polymers as covalently bonded macromolecular structures was proposed in 1920 by Hermann Staudinger,[11] who spent the next decade finding experimental evidence for this hypothesis.[12]

Polymers are studied in the fields of polymer science (which includes polymer chemistry and polymer physics), biophysics and materials science and engineering. Historically, products arising from the linkage of repeating units by covalent chemical bonds have been the primary focus of polymer science. An emerging important area now focuses on supramolecular polymers formed by non-covalent links. Polyisoprene of latex rubber is an example of a natural polymer, and the polystyrene of styrofoam is an example of a synthetic polymer. In biological contexts, essentially all biological macromolecules—i.e., proteins (polyamides), nucleic acids (polynucleotides), and polysaccharides—are purely polymeric, or are composed in large part of polymeric components.

Cartoon schematic of polymer molecules