Pope Pius IX

Pope Pius IX (Italian: Pio IX, Pio Nono; born Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti;[lower-alpha 1] 13 May 1792 – 7 February 1878) was head of the Catholic Church from 1846 to 1878, the longest verified papal reign. He was notable for convoking the First Vatican Council in 1868 and for permanently losing control of the Papal States in 1870 to the Kingdom of Italy. Thereafter he refused to leave Vatican City, declaring himself a "prisoner of the Vatican".

Pope Blessed

Pius IX
Bishop of Rome
Pius IX in 1862
Papacy began16 June 1846
Papacy ended7 February 1878
PredecessorGregory XVI
SuccessorLeo XIII
Orders
Ordination10 April 1819
by Fabrizio Sceberras Testaferrata
Consecration3 June 1827
by Francesco Saverio Castiglioni
Created cardinal
  • 23 December 1839 (in pectore)
  • 14 December 1840 (revealed)

by Pope Gregory XVI
Personal details
Birth nameGiovanni Maria
Mastai Ferretti
Born(1802-05-13)13 May 1802
Senigallia, Marche, Papal States
MottoCrux de Cruce[1]
Signature
Coat of arms
Sainthood
Feast day7 February
Venerated inCatholic Church
Title as SaintBlessed
Beatified3 September 2000
Saint Peter's Square, Vatican City
by Pope John Paul II
Attributes
Patronage
Other popes named Pius

At the time of his election, he was seen as a champion of liberalism and reform, but the Revolutions of 1848 decisively reversed his policies. Upon the assassination of his Prime Minister Rossi, Pius escaped Rome and excommunicated all participants in the short-lived Roman Republic. After its suppression and his return in 1850, his policies and doctrinal pronouncements became increasingly conservative, seeking to stem the revolutionary tide.

In his encyclical Ubi primum he emphasized Mary's role in salvation.[4] In 1854, he promulgated the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, articulating a long-held Catholic belief that Mary, the Mother of God, was conceived without original sin. His 1864 Syllabus of Errors was a strong condemnation against liberalism, modernism, moral relativism, secularization, separation of church and state, and other Enlightenment ideas. Pius definitively reaffirmed Catholic teaching in favor of the establishment of the Catholic faith as the state religion where possible. His appeal for financial support resulted in the successful revival of donations known as Peter's Pence. He centralized power in the church in the Holy See and Roman Curia, while also clearly defining the Pope's doctrinal authority. His chief legacy is the dogma of papal infallibility. Pope John Paul II beatified him in 2000.