Chemistry is the scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter. It is a physical science under natural sciences that covers the elements that make up matter to the compounds made of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other substances. Chemistry also addresses the nature of chemical bonds in chemical compounds.
In the scope of its subject, chemistry occupies an intermediate position between physics and biology. It is sometimes called the central science because it provides a foundation for understanding both basic and applied scientific disciplines at a fundamental level. For example, chemistry explains aspects of plant growth (botany), the formation of igneous rocks (geology), how atmospheric ozone is formed and how environmental pollutants are degraded (ecology), the properties of the soil on the moon (cosmochemistry), how medications work (pharmacology), and how to collect DNA evidence at a crime scene (forensics).
Chemistry is a study that has existed since ancient times. Over this time frame, it has evolved, and now chemistry encompasses various areas of specialisation, or subdisciplines, that continue to increase in number and interrelate to create further interdisciplinary fields of study. The applications of various fields of chemistry are used frequently for economic purposes in the chemical industry. (Full article...)
The effects of LSD can vary greatly, depending on factors such as previous experiences, state of mind and environment, as well as dose strength. Generally, LSD causes expansion and altered experience of senses, emotions, memories, and awareness for 8 to 14 hours. In addition, LSD may produce visual effects such as moving geometric patterns, "trails" behind moving objects, and brilliant colors. LSD does not produce hallucinations in the strict sense but instead illusions and vivid daydream-like fantasies, in which ordinary objects and experiences can take on entirely different appearances or meanings. At higher doses it can cause synaesthesia. The drug sometimes spurs long-term or even permanent changes in a user's personality and life perspective.
LSD is synthesized from lysergic acid derived from ergot, a grain fungus that typically grows on rye. LSD is sensitive to oxygen, ultraviolet light, and chlorine, especially in solution (though its potency may last years if the substance is stored away from light and moisture at low temperature). In pure form it is colorless, odorless, and mildly bitter. LSD is typically delivered orally, usually on a substrate such as absorbent blotter paper, a sugar cube, or gelatin.
Introduced by Sandoz Laboratories as a drug with various psychiatric uses, LSD quickly became a therapeutic agent that appeared to show great promise. However, the extra-medical use of the drug in Western society in the middle years of the twentieth century led to a political firestorm and government insider panic that resulted in the banning of the substance for medical as well as recreational and spiritual uses. Despite this, it is still considered a promising drug in some intellectual circles.
- Analytical chemistry: Chromatography, Spectroscopy
- Biochemistry: Molecular biology
- Crystal Chemistry
- Environmental chemistry: Geochemistry
- Inorganic chemistry: Inorganic reactions
- Materials science: Nanotechnology, Glass, Ceramics
- Medicinal chemistry
- Nuclear chemistry
- Organic chemistry: Functional groups, Organic compounds, Organic reactions
- Organometallic chemistry
- Physical chemistry: Electrochemistry, Quantum chemistry
- Polymer chemistry
- Supramolecular chemistry
- Theoretical chemistry: Computational chemistry
History and Philosophy of Chemistry
Many chemists have an interest in the history of chemistry. Those with philosophical interests will be interested that the philosophy of chemistry has quite recently developed along a path somewhat different from the general philosophy of science.
Other articles that might interest you are:
There is a Wikipedia Project on the History of Science.
Wikipedia:WikiProject Chemicals/Data is a collection of links and references that are useful for chemistry-related works. This includes free online chemical databases, publications, patents, computer programs, and various tools.
unit-conversion.info A good place to figure out what equals what.
General Chemistry Online Clear text and comprehensive coverage of general chemistry topics by Fred Senese, Dept. of Chemistry Frostburg State University
General Chemistry Demonstration at Purdue Video clips (and descriptions) of lecture demonstrations.
Chemistry Webercises Directory A large listing of chemistry resources maintained by Steven Murov, Emeritus Chemistry Professor Modesto Junior College.
MathMol MathMol (Mathematics and Molecules) is a good starting point for those interested in the field of molecular modeling.
ABC-Chemistry A directory of free full-text journals in chemistry, biochemistry and related subjects.
The Element Song A goofy little song about all of the elements.
Yuan Tseh Lee (born 1936) is a Taiwanese chemist, and the first Taiwanese-born Nobel Prize laureate. Along with John Charles Polanyi and Dudley R. Herschbach, he received the 1986 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for their contributions to the dynamics of chemical elementary processes." Lee's particular work was on crossed molecular beams, to further its use in general reactions, a method for the study of important reactions for relatively large molecules. Since 1994, Lee has been the President of the Academia Sinica of the Republic of China.
Techniques used by chemists
Equipment used by chemists
Chemistry in society
Chemistry in industry
Companies: AstraZeneca - Bayer - BP - BASF - Bristol-Myers Squibb - DowDuPont - Evonik Industries - ExxonMobil - Linde plc - Mitsubishi - Monsanto - Nestlé - OSI - Shell - Sigma-Aldrich - Sasol - Total - GlaxoSmithKline - Teva
|Alkaline earth metals||Triels||Tetrels||Pnictogens||Chalcogens||Halogens||Noble|
- Ca: 40.078 — Abridged value (uncertainty omitted here)
- Po:  — mass number of the most stable isotope
The following Wikimedia Foundation sister projects provide more on this subject:
Free media repository
Free textbooks and manuals
Free knowledge base
Collection of quotations
Free learning tools
Dictionary and thesaurus
- Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
- Prohaska, Thomas; Irrgeher, Johanna; Benefield, Jacqueline; et al. (2022-05-04). "Standard atomic weights of the elements 2021 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. doi:10.1515/pac-2019-0603. ISSN 1365-3075.