The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Paleolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century and has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century. The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law—the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world—developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation.
England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the north (for example, the Lake District and Pennines) and in the west (for example, Dartmoor and the Shropshire Hills). The capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and, prior to Brexit, the European Union. England's population of 56.3million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom, largely concentrated around London, the South East, and conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, and Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century.
Image 34Alfred Hitchcock is often regarded as the greatest British filmmaker. He was described as "a straightforward middle-class Englishman who just happened to be an artistic genius." (from Culture of England)
Image 43The first general laws against child labour, the Factory Acts, were passed in Britain in the first half of the 19th century. Children younger than nine were not allowed to work and the work day of youth under the age of 18 was limited to twelve hours. (from History of England)
Image 47King Alfred the Great statue in Winchester, Hampshire. The 9th-century English king encouraged education in his kingdom, and proposed that primary education be taught in English, with those wishing to advance to holy orders to continue their studies in Latin. (from Culture of England)
Trespass to the person comes in three variants: assault, which is "to act in such a way that the claimant believes he is about to be attacked"; battery, "the intentional and direct application of force to another person"; and false imprisonment, "depriving the claimant of freedom of movement, without a lawful justification for doing so". All three require that the act be a direct and intentional act, with indirect or unintentional acts falling under the tort of negligence. Battery and assault require the claimant to establish that the defendant intended to act, while false imprisonment is a tort of strict liability. The guiding principle behind all three is based on the statement of Robert Goff, LJ, who stated in Collins v Wilcock that "any person's body is inviolate", excepting normal, day-to-day physical contact. (Full article...)
Most legal restrictions on social contact are ended in England. Face coverings in indoor public places are no longer required by law, though they are still recommended in some settings. There are no more limits on how many people can attend events, nightclubs can reopen and table service will not be necessary in pubs and restaurants. People working from home as a result of the pandemic are formally encouraged to return to their workplace. (BBC)
Restrictions are also being eased across Scotland to level zero. Unlike in England, face coverings are still mandatory in indoor public places and on public transport. The change also means that four households can meet indoors at home, up to 10 households can meet in a pub or restaurant, up to 15 households can meet outdoors and up to 200 people can attend a wedding or funeral. (BBC)