Portal:Georgia (country)

Portal: Georgia

საქართველოს გერბი

Georgia (საქართველო, Sakartvelo; IPA: [sɑkʰɑrtʰvɛlɔ] (listen)) is a country located at the intersection of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is a part of the Caucasus region, bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north and east by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan. It covers 69,700 square kilometres (26,911 sq mi), and has a population of around 4 million. Georgia is a representative democracy governed as a unitary parliamentary republic. Tbilisi is the capital and largest city, home to roughly a quarter of the population.

During the classical era, several independent kingdoms became established in what is now Georgia, such as Colchis and Iberia. Georgians officially adopted Christianity in the early fourth century, which contributed to the spiritual and political unification of early Georgian states. In the Middle Ages, the unified Kingdom of Georgia emerged and reached its Golden Age during the reign of King David the Builder and Queen Tamar the Great in the 12th and early 13th centuries. Thereafter, the kingdom declined and eventually disintegrated under the hegemony of various regional powers, including the Mongols, the Ottoman Empire and successive dynasties of Persia. In 1783, one of the Georgian kingdoms entered an alliance with the Russian Empire, which proceeded to annex the territory of modern Georgia in a piecemeal fashion throughout the 19th century.

After the Russian Revolution in 1917, Georgia emerged as an independent republic under German protection. Following World War I, Georgia was forcibly annexed by the Soviet Union in 1922, becoming one of its fifteen constituent republics. By the 1980s, an independence movement emerged and grew quickly, leading to Georgia's secession from the Soviet Union in April 1991. For most of the subsequent decade, post-Soviet Georgia suffered from economic crisis, political instability, ethnic conflict, and secessionist wars in Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Following the bloodless Rose Revolution in 2003, Georgia strongly pursued a pro-Western foreign policy; it introduced a series of democratic and economic reforms aimed at integration into the European Union and NATO. The country's Western orientation soon led to worsening relations with Russia, at one point even resulting in a brief war in 2008.

Georgia is a developing country, classified as "very high" on the Human Development Index. Economic reforms since independence have lead to higher levels of economic freedom and ease of doing business, as well as reductions in corruption indicators, poverty, and unemployment. It is one of the first countries in the world to legalize cannabis, becoming the only former-communist state in the world to do so. The country is a member of international organizations across both Europe and Asia, such as Council of Europe, Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, OSCE, Eurocontrol, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and GUAM. (Full article...)


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The Georgians, or Kartvelians (/kʌrtˈvɛliənz/; Georgian: ქართველები, romanized: kartvelebi, pronounced [kʰɑrtʰvɛlɛbi]), are a nation and indigenous Kartvelian-speaking ethnic group native to Georgia and the South Caucasus. Large Georgian communities are also present throughout Russia, Turkey, Greece, Iran, Ukraine, the United States and European Union.

Georgians arose from Colchian and Iberian civilizations of classical antiquity; Colchis was interconnected with the Hellenic world, whereas Iberia was influenced by the Achaemenid Empire until Alexander the Great annihilated it. In the 4th century, the Georgians became one of the first to embrace Christianity and now the majority of Georgians are Orthodox Christians, with most following their national autocephalous Georgian Orthodox Church, although there are small Georgian Catholic and Muslim communities as well as a significant number of irreligious Georgians. Located in the Caucasus, on the continental crossroads of Europe and Asia, the High Middle Ages saw Georgian people form a unified Kingdom of Georgia in 1008 AD, the pan-Caucasian empire, later inaugurating the Georgian Golden Age, a height of political and cultural power of the nation. This lasted until the kingdom was weakened and later disintegrated as the result of the 13th–15th-century invasions of the Mongols and Timur, the Black Death, the Fall of Constantinople, as well as internal divisions following the death of George V the Brilliant in 1346, the last of the great kings of Georgia. (Full article...)


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A Tatar Fruiterer by Niko Pirosmani, 1910, Georgian National Museum

Did you know...

Meri Shervashidze
  • ...Erekle II (1720-1798), king of Kartl-Kakheti, married three times and had thirteen sons and 10 daughters...

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This is a Good article, an article that meets a core set of high editorial standards.

Kakhaber "Kakha" Kaladze (Georgian: კახაბერ (კახა) კალაძე, pronounced [kʼaxabɛr kʼalad͡zɛ]; born 27 February 1978) is a Georgian politician and retired footballer. He has served as the Mayor of Tbilisi since November 2017. A versatile player, he was capable of playing both as a centre-back and as a left-back, or even as a wide midfielder. He played for the Georgia national team from 1996 to 2011. He was voted Georgian Footballer of the Year in 2001–2003, 2006 and 2011 and was considered one of Georgia's most important players.

Kaladze started his football career in 1993 at Umaglesi Liga club Dinamo Tbilisi and made 82 appearances in a five-year spell. In 1998, he moved to the Ukrainian club Dynamo Kyiv and made 71 appearances until 2001, when he was signed by the Italian Serie A club Milan. He has won one Serie A, three Ukrainian Premier League and five Umaglesi Liga titles. With Milan, he won the Champions League on two occasions, the UEFA Super Cup once and the FIFA Club World Cup once. After captaining his country 50 times in 84 appearances, Kaladze announced his retirement from the Georgian national team on 11 December 2011. (Full article...)


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The following are images from various Georgia-related articles on Wikipedia.

Main topics



    History of Georgia (C)

    • General: Histoire de la Géorgie - Chronology of Georgia - Liste des souverains de Géorgie - Liste des reines de Géorgie - Noblesse Géorgienne
    • Periods: Colkhis - Iberia - Royaume de Géorgie - Division du royaume de Géorgie - République démocratique de Géorgie - RSS de Géorgie - Guerre civile
    • Wars: Croisade géorgienne - Mongol Invasion in Georgia - Tamerlan Invasion in Georgia - Guerres perso-géorgiennes - Guerres turco-géorgiennes - Guerre d'indépendance d'Iméréthie - Invasion soviétique en Géorgie
      • Abkhazia and South Ossetia : War of Abkhazia - War of Abkhazia (1998) - Conflit osséto-géorgien (1918-1920) - Première Guerre d'Ossétie du Sud - Deuxième Guerre d'Ossétie du Sud
    • People: Bagrat III - David IV - Tamar - Démétrius II - Héraclius II - Zviad Gamsakhurdia - Eduard Shevardnadze - Mikhail Saakashvili
    • Regional histories: History of Abkhazia - History of Adjara - History of Tbilissi





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Bakuriani in Winter
The panoramic view of ski resort Bakuriani in wintertime.

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