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Islam (/ˈɪslɑːm/; Arabic: اَلْإِسْلَامُ, romanized: al-’Islām, [ɪsˈlaːm] (listen) "submission [to God]") is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that Muhammad is a messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with 1.9 billion followers, or 24.9% of the world's population, known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 47 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and has guided humanity through prophets, revealed scriptures, and natural signs. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, believed to be the verbatim word of God, as well as the teachings and normative examples (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (c. 570 – 632 CE).

Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times before through prophets such as Adam, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran, in Arabic, to be the unaltered and final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam also teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded in paradise and the unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, as well as following Islamic law (sharia), which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment. The cities of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam.

From a historical point of view, Islam originated in early 7th century CE in the Arabian Peninsula, in Mecca, and by the 8th century, the Umayyad Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east. The Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the historically Muslim world was experiencing a scientific, economic, and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates and states such as the Ottoman Empire, trade, and conversion to Islam by missionary activities (dawah). (Full article...)

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In this month

Islam in the news

17 September 2021 – Afghanistan conflict
Marine Corps General Kenneth F. McKenzie Jr. acknowledges that a drone strike conducted by the U.S. military on August 29 near Kabul International Airport killed 10 civilians instead of ISIL-K militants. (The New York Times)
13 September 2021 – Insurgency in the Maghreb
A report by Amnesty International citing other organizations says that an increasing number of children are being killed and abducted as the conflict in Niger, mainly in the Tillabéri Region, worsens near the border with Mali and Burkina Faso. The report says that "a generation is growing surrounded by death and destruction" and denounces "gross abuses" by ISIL and Jama'at Nasr al-Islam wal Muslimin. The report urges the government and international partners to "take action". (Al Jazeera)
13 September 2021 –
Emily Claire Hari, the leader of an Illinois-based, anti-government militia group, is sentenced to 53 years in prison for masterminding the August 2017 bombing of the Dar Al-Farooq Islamic Center in Bloomington, Minnesota. (AP)
10 September 2021 – Afghanistan conflict
Footage released by The New York Times shows that a U.S. drone strike conducted on August 29 targeted an aid worker named Zemari Ahmadi instead of ISIS-K militants. The report also confirms that 10 Afghans were killed in the drone strike, including seven children. (Business Insider)
10 September 2021 – Iran–PJAK conflict
Iranian IRGC Ground Forces strike "terrorist positions" in northern Iraq with suicide and combat drones as well as precision-guided artillery. (Tehran Times) (Iran International)
5 September 2021 – ISIL insurgency in Iraq
Twelve police officers are killed and three others are wounded as ISIL militants open fire and bomb a security checkpoint in Kirkuk. (Al Jazeera)

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Abū Yūsuf Yaʻqūb ibn Isḥāq al-Kindī (c. 801–873 CE), also known to the West by the Latinized version of his name Alkindus, was an Arab polymath: an Islamic philosopher, scientist, astrologer, astronomer, cosmologist, chemist, logician, mathematician, musician, physician, physicist, psychologist, and meteorologist. Al-Kindi was the first of the Muslim Peripatetic philosophers, and is known for his efforts to introduce Greek and Hellenistic philosophy to the Arab world, and as a pioneer in chemistry, cryptography, medicine, music theory, physics, psychology, and the philosophy of science. Al-Kindi was a descendant of the Kinda tribe. He was born and educated in Kufa, before pursuing further studies in Baghdad. Al-Kindi became a prominent figure in the House of Wisdom, and a number of Abbasid Caliphs appointed him to oversee the translation of Greek scientific and philosophical texts into the Arabic language. This contact with "the philosophy of the ancients" (as Greek and Hellenistic philosophy was often referred to by Muslim scholars) had a profound effect on his intellectual development, and led him to write original treatises on subjects ranging from Islamic ethics and metaphysics to Islamic mathematics and pharmacology.

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