Portal:Turkey

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Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country bridging Europe and Asia. It shares borders with Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest; the Black Sea to the north; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran to the east; Iraq to the southeast; Syria and the Mediterranean Sea to the south; and the Aegean Sea to the west. Turks form the vast majority of the nation's population and Kurds are the largest minority. Turkey's capital is Ankara while its largest city and financial centre is Istanbul.

One of the world's earliest permanently settled regions, present-day Turkey was home to important Neolithic sites like Göbekli Tepe, and was inhabited by ancient civilisations including the Hattians and Anatolian peoples. Hellenization started in the area during the era of Alexander the Great and continued into the Byzantine era. The Seljuk Turks began migrating in the 11th century, and the Sultanate of Rum ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th century, the Ottomans started uniting the principalities and conquering the Balkans, and the Turkification of Anatolia increased during the Ottoman period. After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire became a global power. From the late 18th century onwards, the empire's power declined with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening empire, Mahmud II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century. The Young Turk Revolution of 1908 brought limitations to the authority of the Ottoman Sultan, allocating power to the Ottoman Parliament, and ushered the empire into a multi-party period. The 1913 coup d'état effectively put the country under the control of the Three Pashas, who were largely responsible for the Empire's entry into World War I in 1914. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian, Assyrian and Pontic Greek subjects. After the Ottomans and the other Central Powers lost the war, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned. The Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allied Powers resulted in the abolition of the Sultanate on 1 November 1922, the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne (which superseded the Treaty of Sèvres) on 24 July 1923 and the proclamation of the Republic on 29 October 1923. With the reforms initiated by the country's first president, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Turkey became a secular, unitary and parliamentary republic; which was later replaced by a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Since then, the new Turkish governmental system under president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and his party, the AKP, has often been described as Islamist and authoritarian.

Turkey is a regional power, and a newly industrialized and developing country, with a geopolitically strategic location. Its economy, which is classified among the emerging and growth-leading economies, is the twentieth-largest in the world by nominal GDP, and the eleventh-largest by PPP. It is a charter member of the United Nations, an early member of NATO, the IMF, and the World Bank, and a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC, and G20. After becoming one of the early members of the Council of Europe in 1950, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995, and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005.

Far from the coast the climate of Turkey tends to be continental but elsewhere temperate, and is becoming hotter, and drier in parts. There are many species of plants and animals. (Full article...)

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The 2010 Turkish Grand Prix (formally the 2010 Formula 1 Turkish Grand Prix) was a Formula One motor race held on 30 May 2010 at the Istanbul Park, Tuzla, Turkey. It was the seventh round of the 2010 Formula One World Championship and the sixth Turkish Grand Prix. McLaren driver Lewis Hamilton won the 58-lap race starting from second position. His teammate Jenson Button finished second, and Red Bull driver Mark Webber took third.

Webber clinched the pole position and maintained his lead at the start of the race with Hamilton in second who fended off a challenge from Sebastian Vettel in the other Red Bull. The order was maintained until the first sequence of pit stops when Hamilton lost second place after his crew had trouble with fitting one of his tyres correctly. Webber conserved fuel on lap 40 which allowed Vettel to challenge him for the lead but the two collided. Vettel retired and the crash promoted Hamilton and Button to first and second. Hamilton and Button were instructed to conserve fuel for the remainder of the race but the latter had not been giving a target lap time and attempted to overtake Hamilton on lap 48 although the former retained the lead which he held for the remaining ten laps to win his first race of the season. (Full article...)
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Nureddin Ibrahim Pasha (Turkish: Nurettin Paşa, Nureddin İbrahim Paşa; 1873 – 18 February 1932), known as Nureddin İbrahim Konyar since 1934 and often called Bearded Nureddin (Turkish: Sakallı Nurettin), was a Turkish military officer who served in the Ottoman Army during World War I and in the Turkish Army during the Western Front of the Turkish War of Independence. To distinguish him from namesakes, he was called Beard Nureddin because he was the only high-ranking Turkish officer during the Turkish War of Independence sporting a beard. He is known as one of the most important commanders of the War. (Full article...)

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