President of Ghana


The president of the Republic of Ghana is the elected head of state and head of government of Ghana, as well as commander-in-chief of the Ghana Armed Forces. The current president of Ghana is Nana Akufo-Addo, who won the 2016 presidential election against the incumbent, John Dramani Mahama, by a margin of 9.45%. Nana Akufo-Addo was sworn into office on 7 January 2017.[2]

President of the
Republic of Ghana
Presidential Seal of Ghana
Incumbent
Nana Akufo-Addo

since 7 January 2017
StyleHis/Her Excellency
ResidenceJubilee House
Term lengthFour years, renewable once
Inaugural holderKwame Nkrumah
Republic established
Jerry Rawlings
Current Constitution
FormationRepublic Day
1 July 1960
1992 Constitution
15 May 1992
DeputyVice-President of Ghana
Salary76,000 USD annually[1]
Website(in English) Presidency.gov.gh
(in English) Ghana.gov.gh
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Ghana
Constitution
Africa portal Politics portal

Eligibility

According to Chapter 8, Article 62 of the 1992 Constitution of Ghana, a person shall not be qualified for election as the president of Ghana unless:

  • (a) he/she is a citizen of Ghana by birth
  • (b) he/she has attained the age of forty years; and
  • (c) he/she is a person who is otherwise qualified to be elected a Member of Parliament, except that the disqualifications set out in paragraphs (c), (d), and (e) of clause (2) of article 94 of this Constitution shall not be removed, in respect of any such person, by a presidential pardon or by the lapse of time as provided for in clause (5) of that article.[3]

Oath of office

The president of Ghana must be sworn in by the chief justice before the citizens of Ghana at the Independence Square in Accra. The president-elect must repeat the following:

"I, _______________ having been elected to the high office of President of the Republic of Ghana do (in the name of the Almighty God swear) (solemnly affirm) that I will be faithful and true to the Republic of Ghana; that I will at all times preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the Republic of Ghana; and that I dedicate myself to the service and well-being of the people of the Republic of Ghana and to do right to all manner of persons.

I further (solemnly swear) (solemnly affirm) that should I at any time break this oath of office; I shall submit myself to the laws of the Republic of Ghana and suffer the penalty for it. (So help me God)".[4]

Insignia

After the oath of office has been taken by the elected president, these following insignia are handed over to the president. These devices are used to display the rank of his/her office and are used on special occasions.

  • President's Sword (image) and the Presidential Seat. A carved wooden seat overlaid with gold.

Powers and duties of the president

Presidential styles of
Nana Akufo-Addo
Reference style'His Excellency President of the Republic of Ghana"
Spoken styleYour Excellency"
Alternative styleMr. President

Chapter 8 of the Constitution of Ghana states the duties and the powers of the president. The president is required to:

  • uphold the Constitution
  • exercise executive authority
  • preserve the safety and homeland of Ghana.[3]

Also, the president is given the powers:

The president may execute or cause to be executed treaties, agreements or conventions in the name of the Republic of Ghana.[3] The president shall take precedence over the populace of the Republic of Ghana and may refer important policy matters to a national referendum, declare war, conclude peace and other treaties, appoint senior public officials, and grant amnesty (with the concurrence of the Parliament of Ghana).[3] In times of serious internal or external turmoil or threat, or economic or financial crises, the president may assume emergency powers "for the maintenance of national security or public peace and order".[3]

The president shall be removed from office if he/she is found, in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution, Chapter 8 section 69 (ii) – prejudicial or inimical to the economy or the security of the Republic of Ghana.[3] The president shall cease to hold office on the date the Parliament of Ghana decides that he/she be removed from office.[3]




List of presidents of Ghana (1960–present)

  Convention People's Party   People's National Party   National Democratic Congress   New Patriotic Party   Military

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Election Term of office Political Party
Took office Left office Time in office
Presidents of the Republic of Ghana (First Republic: 1960–1966)
1 Kwame Nkrumah
(1909–1972)
1960 1 July 1960 24 February 1966
(Deposed in a coup d'état)
5 years,

236 days

Convention People's Party
Presidents as Head of State (Second Republic: 1966–1972)
1 Joseph Ankrah
(1915–1992)
Chairman of the NLC
24 February 1966 2 April 1969 3 years,

39 days

National Liberation Council
2 Akwasi Afrifa
(1936–1979)
Chairman of the NLC until 3 September 1969, thereafter Chairman of the Presidential Commission
2 April 1969 7 August 1970 1 year,

126 days

National Liberation Council
3 Nii Amaa Ollennu
(1906–1986)
7 August 1970 31 August 1970 24 days Independent
4 Edward Akufo-Addo
(1906–1979)
31 August 1970 13 January 1972
(Deposed in a coup d'état)
1 year,

134 days

Independent
5 Ignatius Acheampong
(1931–1979)
Chairman of the NRC until 9 October 1975, thereafter Chairman of the SMC
13 January 1972 5 July 1978
(Deposed in a palace coup d'état)
6 years,

174 days

Supreme Military Council
6 Fred Akuffo
(1937–1979)
Chairman of the SMC
5 July 1978 4 June 1979
(Deposed in a coup d'état)
334 days Supreme Military Council
Presidents as Head of State (Third Republic: 1979–1981)
1 Jerry Rawlings
(1947–)
Chairman of the AFRC
4 June 1979 24 September 1979 112 days Armed Forces Revolutionary Council
2 Hilla Limann
(1934–1998)
1979 24 September 1979 31 December 1981
(Deposed in a coup d'état)
2 years,

98 days

People's National Party
3 Jerry Rawlings
(1947–)
Chairman of the PNDC
31 December 1981 7 January 1993 11 years, 7 days Provisional National Defence Council
Presidents of the Republic of Ghana (Fourth Republic: since 1993)
1 Jerry Rawlings
(1947–)
1992
1996
7 January 1993 7 January 2001 8 years National Democratic Congress
2 John Kufuor
(1938–)
2000

2004

7 January 2001 7 January 2009[5] 8 years New Patriotic Party
3 John Atta Mills
(1944–2012)
2008 7 January 2009[5] 24 July 2012[6]
(Died in office)
3 years,

199 days

National Democratic Congress
4 John Mahama
(1958–)
2012 24 July 2012[7] 7 January 2017[8] 4 years,

166 days

National Democratic Congress
5 Nana Akufo-Addo
(1944–)
2016 7 January 2017 Incumbent 3 years, 45 days New Patriotic Party

Residence

Jubilee House
General information
LocationAccra, Ghana
Current tenantsNana Akufo-Addo

The president of Ghana's official residence was Osu Castle (also known as Fort Christiansborg or Christiansborg Castle) in Accra. In 2007, the opposition MPs in Ghana stormed out of a parliamentary debate on whether to take out a $50m loan to build a new presidential palace. MPs from President John Kufuor's New Patriotic Party voted unanimously in favour of taking the loan from India.[9]

They argued that the president should not be based in Osu Castle, where slaves used to be kept. The opposition National Democratic Congress said the money would be better spent elsewhere.[9] The old flagstaff house used by Ghana's first president as a residence is being renovated into a museum, while the grounds on which it stands is being built up as an ultra modern office complex and residence for the president and vice-president of Ghana as well as their staff.[9] The new presidential palace was expected to be completed by August 2008 but was finally completed in November 2008. At the inauguration of the new presidential palace, President John Kufuor revealed to the press that the new name of the palace would be Golden Jubilee House. The name was chosen in reference to the 50th anniversary of Ghana's Independence.[9]

Part of the office space has been given to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs when it had to be relocated because of a fire that gutted its offices. The NDC government refused to move to the venue after it assumed office in 2009 noting that some of the work in the residency is not completed. The government of President Atta Mills also noted that the National Security establishment Bureau of National Investigations (BNI) wanted to ensure that security at the venue was improved before the government moved in. The name was changed to Flagstaff House by John Atta-Mills in an attempt many see as to cover its link to the celebration of the 50th anniversary of Ghana under the New Patriotic Party. On 7 February 2013, the office of the presidency was finally moved to the Flagstaff House.[10]

The name has been reverted to the Jubilee House.

Transport

Dassault Falcon 900 EX of the President of Ghana

National transport services for the Ghanaian President are:[11]

Air transport services for the Ghanaian President are:[12]

The presidential aircraft uses the colour scheme as the flag of Ghana in stripes, except for the use of the Ghanaian coat of arms on the empennage instead of the flag of Ghana.

In the autumn of 2012 a jet aircraft was acquired in the Golden Jubilee House. According to the Chief of the Golden Jubilee House Property Agency acquisition of a Embraer 190 jet aircraft for the president costed 105 million cedis (about $55 mln). The jet aircraft planned location is in the Ghanaian Presidential Retreat's Peduase Lodge.[13]

Timeline since 1960

John Dramani MahamaJohn Atta MillsJohn KufuorJerry RawlingsHilla LimannJerry RawlingsFred AkuffoIgnatius AcheampongEdward Akufo-AddoNii Amaa OllennuAkwasi AfrifaJoseph Arthur AnkrahKwame Nkrumah

Latest election

Candidate Party Votes %
John Dramani MahamaNational Democratic Congress5,574,76150.70
Nana Akufo-AddoNew Patriotic Party5,248,89847.74
Paa Kwesi NduomProgressive People's Party64,3620.59
Henry Herbert LarteyGreat Consolidated Popular Party38,2230.35
Ayariga HassanPeople's National Convention24,6170.22
Michael Abu Sakara FosterConvention People's Party20,3230.18
Jacob Osei YeboahIndependent15,2010.14
Akwasi Addai OdikeUnited Front Party8,8770.08
Invalid/blank votes251,720
Total11,246,982100
Registered voters/turnout14,158,89079.43
Source: Electoral Commission of Ghana

President-elect

The president-elect of Ghana is the apparent winner, as ascertained by the chairperson of the Electoral Commission of Ghana, following the general election on 7 December.

During the period between the presidential election and the inauguration, the outgoing president is a lame duck, while the incoming president heads a presidential transition team to ensure a smooth handover of power. If a sitting president has won re-election, the incumbent is not referred to as a president-elect as he or she is already in office and is not waiting to become president. Likewise, if a vice president succeeds to the presidency by way of the president's death, resignation or removal (via impeachment) from office, that person never holds the title of President-elect, as they would become the president immediately. The most recent president-elect is former Minister of Foreign Affairs Nana Akufo-Addo of the New Patriotic Party, who won the presidential election on 9 December 2016.[14]

The vice president–elect of Ghana is the running mate of presidential candidate who wins an election. First established after the adoption of the 3rd Constitution of Ghana, the inaugural holder is Joseph W.S. deGraft-Johnson. The current vice president–elect of Ghana is Mahamudu Bawumia. Until the formation of the 3rd Republic of Ghana, the position of Vice President did not exist.

List of presidents-elect

  CPP   PNP   NDC   NPP

President–elect Party From To Number of days
1Kwame Nkrumah CPP20 April 19601 July 196072 days
2Hilla Limann PNP9 July 197924 September 197978 days
3Jerry John Rawlings NDC3 November 19927 January 199365 days
4John Agyekum Kufuor NPP28 December 20007 January 200110 days
5John Atta Mills NDC28 December 20087 January 200910 days
7Nana Akufo-Addo NPP9 December 20167 January 201731 days

Prime Minister Kwame Nkrumah became the first Ghanaian to be elected as President of the Republic of Ghana. President Limann holds the record of having the longest transition period from President-elect to President. His transition period lasted 78 days. President Rawlings prior to the presidential elections in 1992, was already head of state of Ghana. He was the chairman of the Provisional National Defence Council. Because Ghana adopted a new constitution in 1992, the position of President of the Republic was vacant. President John Kufuor and President John Atta Mills both hold the record of having the shortest transition period from President-elect to President with both transition period lasting only 10 days. This is both presidents needed a second round of voting (2000, 2008) to win the presidential election.

See also

References