Prince Edward Island

Prince Edward Island (PEI; French: Île-du-Prince-Édouard; colloquially known as The Island) is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is the smallest province in terms of land area and population, but the most densely populated. The island has several nicknames: "Garden of the Gulf", "Birthplace of Confederation" and "Cradle of Confederation".[8] Its capital and largest city is Charlottetown. It is one of the three Maritime provinces and one of the four Atlantic provinces.

Prince Edward Island
Motto(s): 
Parva sub ingenti (Latin)
("The small protected by the great")
Coordinates: 46°30′N 63°00′W[1]
CountryCanada
ConfederationJuly 1, 1873 (8th)
Capital
(and largest city)
Charlottetown
Largest metroCharlottetown
Government
  TypeParliamentary constitutional monarchy
  Lieutenant GovernorAntoinette Perry
  PremierDennis King
LegislatureLegislative Assembly of Prince Edward Island
Federal representationParliament of Canada
House seats4 of 338 (1.2%)
Senate seats4 of 105 (3.8%)
Area
  Total5,660 km2 (2,190 sq mi)
  Land5,660 km2 (2,190 sq mi)
  Water0 km2 (0 sq mi)  0%
  Rank13th
 0.1% of Canada
Population
 (2021)
  Total154,331 [4]
  Estimate 
(Q4 2022)
172,707 [5]
  Rank10th
  Density27.27/km2 (70.6/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Prince Edward Islander, Islander, PEIer
Official languagesEnglish (de facto)[6]
GDP
  Rank10th
  Total (2017)6.652 billion
  Per capitaC$36,740 (13th)
HDI
  HDI (2019)0.924[7]Very high (4th)
Time zoneUTC-04:00 (Atlantic)
Canadian postal abbr.
PE
Postal code prefix
ISO 3166 codeCA-PE
FlowerPink lady's slipper
TreeRed oak
BirdBlue jay
Rankings include all provinces and territories

Part of the traditional lands of the Miꞌkmaq, it was colonized by the French in 1604 as part of the colony of Acadia. The island was ceded to the British at the conclusion of the French and Indian War in 1763 and became part of the colony of Nova Scotia, and in 1769 the island became its own British colony. Prince Edward Island hosted the Charlottetown Conference in 1864 to discuss a union of the Maritime provinces; however, the conference became the first in a series of meetings which led to Canadian Confederation in 1867. Prince Edward Island initially balked at Confederation but, facing bankruptcy from the Land Question and construction of a railroad, joined as Canada's seventh province in 1873.

According to Statistics Canada, the province of Prince Edward Island had 158,717 residents in 2019.[9] The backbone of the island economy is farming; it produces 25% of Canada's potatoes. Other important industries include the fisheries, tourism, aerospace, bio-science, IT, and renewable energy.[10] As Prince Edward Island is one of Canada's older settlements, its population still reflects some of the earliest settlers, with Canadien, Scottish, Irish, and English surnames being dominant.

Prince Edward Island is located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, about 200 kilometres (120 miles) north of Halifax and 600 kilometres (370 miles) east of Quebec City, and has a land area of 5,686.03 km2 (2,195.39 sq mi).[11] The main island is 5,620 km2 (2,170 sq mi) in size.[12] It is the 104th-largest island in the world, Canada's 23rd-largest island, and the only Canadian province consisting solely of an island.


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