Propædia


The one-volume Propædia is the first of three parts of the 15th edition of Encyclopædia Britannica, the other two being the 12-volume Micropædia and the 17-volume Macropædia. The Propædia is intended as a topical organization of the Britannica's contents, complementary to the alphabetical organization of the other two parts. Introduced in 1974 with the 15th edition, the Propædia and Micropædia were intended to replace the Index of the 14th edition; however, after widespread criticism, the Britannica restored the Index as a two-volume set in 1985. The core of the Propædia is its Outline of Knowledge, which seeks to provide a logical framework for all human knowledge; however, the Propædia also has several appendices listing the staff members, advisors and contributors to all three parts of the Britannica.

The last edition of the print Britannica was published in 2010.[1][2]

Outline of Knowledge


Like the Britannica as a whole, the Outline has three types of goals:[3]

According to Mortimer J. Adler, the designer of the Propaedia, all articles in the full Britannica were designed to fit into the Outline of Knowledge.[3]

The Outline has ten Parts, each with an introductory essay. The authors of these essays are listed below in the final column of Table 1. The same ten men were responsible for developing the outline for their Part, in consultation and collaboration with a handful of other scholars; in all, 86 men and one woman were involved in developing the Outline of Knowledge (see Table 2 below).

Each of the ten Parts contains from 2 to 7 Divisions, which in turn contain from 2 to 11 Sections. These Sections form the basic categories of knowledge in the schema, and each one is given a special three-part numerical code to encode its place in the Outline's hierarchy. For example, the section "Military Technology" has the code "736" indicating that it is the 6th Section of the 3rd Division ("Major Fields of Technology") of the 7th Part ("Technology"). Forward slashes are used when a Part, Division or Section has more than one digit; for example, the Section "History and Philosophy of Logic" has the code "10/11" indicating that it is the 1st section of the 1st Division ("Logic") of the 10th Part ("The Branches of Knowledge").

Table 1: The Outline of Knowledge in the Propædia
10 Parts41 Divisions167 SectionsLead AuthorIntroduction
1. Matter and
    Energy
1.1 Atoms
1.1.1 Structure and Properties of Atoms
1.1.2 Atomic Nuclei and Elementary Particles
Nigel Calder"The Universe of the Physicist, the Chemist, and the Astronomer"
1.2 Energy, Radiation, and
 States of Matter

1.2.1 Chemical Elements: Periodic Variation in Their Properties
1.2.2 Chemical Compounds: Molecular Structure and Chemical Bonding
1.2.3 Chemical Reactions
1.2.4 Heat, Thermodynamics, Liquids, Gases, Plasmas
1.2.5 The Solid State of Matter
1.2.6 Mechanics of Particles, Rigid and Deformable Bodies: Elasticity, Vibration, and Flow
1.2.7 Electricity and Magnetism,
1.2.8 Waves and Wave Motion

1.3 The Universe

1.3.1 The Cosmos
1.3.2 Galaxies and Stars
1.3.3 The Solar System

2. The Earth2.1 Earth's Properties, Structure, Composition
2.1.1 The Planet Earth
2.1.2 Earth's Physical Properties
2.1.3 Structure and Composition of the Earth's Interior
2.1.4 Minerals and Rocks
Peter John Wyllie"The Great Globe Itself"
2.2 Earth's Envelope

2.2.1 The Atmosphere
2.2.2 The Hydrosphere: the Oceans, Freshwater and Ice Masses
2.2.3 Weather and Climate

2.3 Surface Features

2.3.1 Physical Features of the Earth's Surface
2.3.2 Features Produced by Geomorphic Processes

2.4 Earth's History

2.4.1 Origin and Development of the Earth and Its Envelopes
2.4.2 The Interpretation of the Geologic Record
2.4.3 Eras and Periods of Geologic Time

3. Life3.1 The Nature and
     Diversity of Life

3.1.1 Characteristics of Life
3.1.2 The Origin and Evolution of Life
3.1.3 Classification of Living Things
René Dubos"The Mysteries of Life"
3.2 The Molecular Basis
     of Life

3.2.1 Chemicals and the Vital Processes
3.2.2 Metabolism: Bioenergetics and Biosynthesis
3.2.3 Vital Processes at the Molecular Level

3.3 The Structures
     and Functions
     of Organisms

3.3.1 Cellular Basis of Form and Function
3.3.2 Relation of Form and Function in Organisms
3.3.3 Coordination of Vital Processes: Regulation and Integration
3.3.4 Covering and Support: Integumentary, Skeletal, and Musculatory Systems
3.3.5 Nutrition: the Procurement and Processing of Nutrients
3.3.6 Gas Exchange, Internal Transport, and Elimination
3.3.7 Reproduction and Sex
3.3.8 Development: Growth, Differentiation, and Morphogenesis
3.3.9 Heredity: the Transmission of Traits

3.4 The Behavior
     of Organisms

3.4.1 Nature and Patterns of Behavior
3.4.2 Development and Range of Behavioral Capacities: Individual and Group Behavior

3.5 The Biosphere

3.5.1 Basic Features of the Biosphere
3.5.2 Populations and Communities
3.5.3 Disease and Death
3.5.4 Biogeographic Distribution of Organisms: Ecosystems
3.5.5 The Place of Humans in the Biosphere

4. Human Life4.1 The Development
     of Human Life
4.1.1 Human Evolution
4.1.2 Human Heredity: the Races
Loren Eiseley"The Cosmic Orphan"
4.2 The Human Body:
     Health and Disease

4.2.1 The Structures and Functions of the Human Body
4.2.2 Human Health
4.2.3 Human Diseases
4.2.4 The Practice of Medicine and Care of Health

4.3 Human Behavior
     and Experience

4.3.1 General theories of human nature and behavior
4.3.2 Antecedent conditions and developmental processes affecting a person's behavior and conscious experience
4.3.3 Influence of the current environment on a person's behavior and conscious experience: attention, sensation, and perception
4.3.4 Current Internal states affecting a person' behavior and conscious experience
4.3.5 Development of Learning and Thinking
4.3.6 Personality and the Self: Integration and Disintegration

5. Society5.1 Social Groups:
    Ethnic groups and Cultures

5.1.1 Peoples and Cultures of the World
5.1.2 The Development of Human Culture
5.1.3 Major Cultural Components and Institutions of Societies
5.1.4 Language and Communication
Harold D. Lasswell"Man the Social Animal"
5.2 Social Organization
     and Social Change

5.2.1 Social Structure and Change
5.2.2 The Group Structure of Society
5.2.3 Social Status
5.2.4 Human Populations: Urban and Rural Communities

5.3 The Production,
     Distribution, and
     Utilization of Wealth

5.3.1 Economic Concepts, Issues, and Systems
5.3.2 Consumer and Market: Pricing and Mechanisms for Distributing Goods
5.3.3 The Organization of Production and Distribution
5.3.4 The Distribution of Income and Wealth
5.3.5 Macroeconomics
5.3.6 Economic Growth and Planning

5.4 Politics and
     Government

5.4.1 Political Theory
5.4.2 Political Institutions: the Structure, Branches, & Offices of Government
5.4.3 Functioning of Government: the Dynamics of the Political Process
5.4.4 International Relations: Peace and War

5.5 Law

5.5.1 Philosophies and Systems of Law; the Practice of Law
5.5.2 Branches of Public Law, Substantive and Procedural
5.5.3 Branches of Private Law, Substantive and Procedural

5.6 Education

5.6.1 Aims and Organization of Education
5.6.2 Education Around the World

6. Art6.1 Art in General
6.1.1 Theory and Classification of the Arts
6.1.2 Experience and Criticism of Art; the Nonaesthetic Context of Art
6.1.3 Characteristics of the Arts in Particular Cultures
Mark Van Doren"The World of Art"
6.2 Particular Arts

6.2.1 Literature
6.2.2 Theater
6.2.3 Motion Pictures
6.2.4 Music
6.2.5 Dance
6.2.6 Architecture, Garden and Landscape Design, and Urban Design
6.2.7 Sculpture
6.2.8 Drawing, Painting, Printmaking, Photography
6.2.9 Decoration and Design|Functional Design

7. Technology7.1 Nature & Development
     of Technology
7.1.1 Technology: Its Scope and History
7.1.2 The Organization of Human Work
Lord Peter Ritchie-Calder"Knowing How and Knowing Why"
7.2 Elements of Technology

7.2.1 Technology of Energy Conversion and Utilization
7.2.2 Technology of Tools and Machines
7.2.3 Technology of Measurement, Observation, and Control
7.2.4 Extraction and Conversion of Industrial Raw Materials
7.2.5 Technology of Industrial Production Processes

7.3 Fields of Technology

7.3.1 Agriculture and Food Production
7.3.2 Technology of the Major Industries
7.3.3 Construction Technology
7.3.4 Transportation Technology
7.3.5 Technology of Information Processing and of Communications Systems
7.3.6 Military Technology
7.3.7 Technology of the Urban Community
7.3.8 Technology of Earth and Space Exploration

8. Religion8.1 Religion in General8.1.1 Knowledge and Understanding of Religion
8.1.2 Religious Life: Institutions and Practices
Wilfred Cantwell Smith"Religion as Symbolism"
8.2 Particular Religions

8.2.1 Prehistoric Religion and Primitive Religion
8.2.2 Religions of Ancient Peoples
8.2.3 Hinduism and Other Religions of India
8.2.4 Buddhism
8.2.5 Indigenous Religions of East Asia: Religions of China, Korea, and Japan
8.2.6 Judaism
8.2.7 Christianity
8.2.8 Islam
8.2.9 Other Religions and Religious Movements in the Modern World

9. History9.1 Ancient Southwest Asia,
     North Africa, and Europe
9.1.1 Ancient Southwest Asia and Egypt, the Aegean, and North Africa
9.1.2 Ancient Europe and Classical Civilizations of the Mediterranean to AD 395
Jacques Barzun"The Point and Pleasure of Reading History"
9.2 Medieval Southwest Asia
      North Africa and Europe

9.2.1 The Byzantine Empire and Europe from AD 395–1050
9.2.2 The Formative Period in Islamic History, AD 622–1055
9.2.3 Western Christendom in the High and Later Middle Ages 1050–1500
9.2.4 The Crusades, the Islamic States, and Eastern Christendom 1050–1480

9.3 East, Central, South,
     and Southeast Asia

9.3.1 China to the Beginning of the Late T'ang AD 755
9.3.2 China from the Late T'ang to the Late Ch'ing AD 755–1839
9.3.3 Central and Northeast Asia to 1750
9.3.4 Japan to the Meiji Restoration 1868, Korea to 1910
9.3.5 The Indian Subcontinent and Ceylon to AD 1200
9.3.6 The Indian Subcontinent 1200–1761, Ceylon 1200–1505
9.3.7 Southeast Asia to 1600

9.4 Sub-Saharan Africa
     to 1885

9.4.1 West Africa to 1885
9.4.2 The Nilotic Sudan and Ethiopia AD 550–1885
9.4.3 East Africa and Madagascar to 1885
9.4.4 Central Africa to 1885
9.4.5 Southern Africa to 1885

9.5 Pre-Columbian America

9.5.1 Andean Civilization to AD 1540
9.5.2 Meso-American Civilization to AD 1540

9.6 The Modern World
     to 1920

9.6.1 Western Europe 1500–1789
9.6.2 Eastern Europe, Southwest Asia, and North Africa 1480–1800
9.6.3 Europe 1789–1920
9.6.4 European Colonies in the Americas 1492–1790
9.6.5 United States and Canada 1763–1920
9.6.6 Latin-America and Caribbean to 1920
9.6.7 Australia and Oceania to 1920
9.6.8 South Asia Under European Imperialism 1500–1920
9.6.9 Southeast Asia Under European Imperialism 1600–1920
9.6.10 China until Revolution 1839–1911, Japan from Meiji Restoration to 1910
9.6.11 Southwest Asia, North Africa 1800–1920, Sub-Saharan Africa 1885–1920: Under European Imperialism

9.7 The World Since 1920

9.7.1 International Movements, Diplomacy and War Since 1920
9.7.2 Europe Since 1920
9.7.3 The United States and Canada Since 1920
9.7.4 Latin American and Caribbean Nations Since 1920
9.7.5 China in Revolution, Japanese Hegemony
9.7.6 South and Southeast Asia: the Late Colonial Period and Nations Since 1920
9.7.7 Australia and Oceania Since 1920
9.7.8 Southwest Asia and Africa: the Late Colonial Period and Nations since 1920

10. Branches
          of
    Knowledge
10.1 Logic
10.1.1 History and Philosophy of Logic
10.1.2 Formal Logic, Metalogic, & Applied Logic
Mortimer J. Adler"Knowledge Become Self-conscious"
10.2 Mathematics

10.2.1 History and Foundations of Mathematics
10.2.2 Branches of Mathematics
10.2.3 Applications of Mathematics

10.3 Science

10.3.1 History and Philosophy of Science
10.3.2 The Physical Sciences
10.3.3 The Earth Sciences
10.3.4 The Biological Sciences
10.3.5 Medicine
10.3.6 The Social Sciences, Psychology, Linguistics
10.3.7 The Technological Sciences

10.4 History and
       The Humanities

10.4.1 Historiography
10.4.2 The Humanities and Humanistic Scholarship

10.5 Philosophy

10.5.1 History of Philosophy
10.5.2 Divisions of Philosophy
10.5.3 Philosophical Schools and Doctrines

10.6 Preservation
      of Knowledge

10.6.1 Institutions and Techniques for the Collection, Storage, Dissemination and Preservation of Knowledge

The Outline was an eight-year project of Mortimer J. Adler, published 22 years after he published a similar effort (the Syntopicon) that attempts to provide an overview of the relationships among the "Great Ideas" in Adler's Great Books of the Western World series. (The Great Books were also published by the Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.) Adler stresses in his book, A Guidebook to Learning: For a Lifelong Pursuit of Wisdom, that the ten categories should not be taken as hierarchical but as circular.

The whole of the Propædia's synoptic outline of knowledge deserves to be read carefully. It represents a twentieth-century scheme for the organization of knowledge that is more comprehensive than any other and that also accommodates the intellectual heterodoxy of our time.

Mortimer J. Adler, in A Guidebook, pp. 91–2

Similar works

Other encyclopedias have provided analogous outlines of knowledge. In the Preface to the famous Encyclopédie (published 1751–1772), d'Alembert provides a roadmap to the knowledge of his time. Inspired by that example, in a letter dated 15 November 1812, Dugald Stewart proposed to Archibald Constable, the owner and publisher of the Britannica, that the supplement to its 5th edition should begin with a series of dissertations that outlined and organized the knowledge of their time.

Contributors to the Outline of Knowledge


Table 2: Contributors to the Outline of Knowledge in the Propædia[4]
NameDate of birthDate of deathPart of OutlineDescriptionIndex
Mortimer J. Adler 19022001All PartsEditor1
Charles Van Doren 19262019All PartsAssociate editor; Editorial Vice President of Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. (1973–1982)2
William J. Gorman 1982All PartsAssociate editor; Senior Fellow of the Institute for Philosophical Research3
A. G. W. Cameron 19252005Matter and EnergyProfessor of Astronomy, Harvard University4
Farrington Daniels 18891972Matter and EnergyProfessor of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison5
Morton Hamermesh Matter and EnergyProfessor of Physics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (1975–1986)6
Vincent E. Parker Matter and EnergyEmeritus Professor of Physics, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona; Dean, School of Science (1967–1977)7
Richard J. Chorley 19272002The EarthProfessor of Geography, University of Cambridge; Fellow of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge8
William Stelling von Arx The EarthSenior Scientist, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (1968–1978)9
Peter John Wyllie 1930The EarthProfessor of Geology and Chairman, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology10
N. J. Berrill 19031996Life on EarthStrathcone Professor of Zoology, McGill University (1946–1965)11
Vincent Dethier 19151993Life on EarthGilbert L. Woodside Professor of Zoology, University of Massachusetts Amherst (1975–1993)12
Louis S. Goodman 19062000Life on EarthDistinguished Professor of Pharmacology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City13
Garrett Hardin 19152003Life on EarthEmeritus Professor of Human Ecology, University of California, Santa Barbara14
Ernst Walter Mayr 19042005Life on EarthAlexander Agassiz Professor Emeritus of Zoology, Harvard University15
John Alexander Moore 19152002Life on EarthEmeritus Professor of Biology, University of California, Riverside16
Theodore T. Puck 19162005Life on EarthProfessor of Biology, Biophysics and Genetics; Distinguished Professor of Medicine, University of Colorado, Health Sciences Center; Director, Eleanor Roosevelt Institute for Cancer Research17
Birgit Vennesland Life on EarthHead, Vennesland Research Laboratory, Max Planck Society (1970–1981); Director, Max Planck Institute for Cell Physiology, Berlin (1968–1970)18
Paul B. Weisz Life on EarthProfessor of Biology, Brown University19
Ralph H. Wetmore 18921989Life on EarthEmeritus Professor of Botany, Harvard University20
Emil H. White Life on EarthD. Mead Johnson Professor of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University21
Wilfrid Edward Le Gros Clark 18951971Human LifeProfessor of Anatomy, University of Oxford22
Russell S. Fisher 1985Human LifeChief Medical Examiner, State of Maryland; Professor of Forensic Pathology, University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore23
F. Clark Howell 19252007Human LifeProfessor of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley24
Gregory A. Kimble Human LifeEmeritus Professor of Psychology, Duke University25
Erich Klinghammer 19302011Human LifeAssociate Professor of Psychology, Purdue University26
Warren Sturgis McCulloch 18991969Human LifeStaff member, Research Laboratory of Electronics, MIT (1952–1969)27
William J. McGuire Human LifeProfessor of Psychology, Yale University28
Peter Medawar 19151987Human LifeNobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, 1960; Jodrell Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, University College London (1951–1962); Director, National Institute, Mill Hill, London (1962–1971); Scientific staff member, Medical Research Council, England (1971–1984)29
William J. Baumol 19222017Human SocietyProfessor of Economics, New York University; Emeritus Professor of Economics, Princeton University30
Daniel Bell 19192011Human SocietyHenry Ford II Professor Emeritus of Social Science, Harvard University31
Guiliano H. Bonfante Human SocietyFormer Professor of Linguistics, University of Turin32
Kenneth E. Boulding 19101993Human SocietyDistinguished Professor of Economics, University of Colorado, Boulder33
Lewis A. Coser 19132003Human SocietyDistinguished Professor Emeritus of Sociology, SUNY, Stony Brook34
Sigmund Diamond Human SocietyGiddings Professor Emeritus of Sociology, Columbia University35
Carl J. Friedrich 19011984Human SocietyEaton Professor of the Science of Government, Harvard University (1955–1971)36
Paul Mundy Human SocietyProfessor of Sociology and Chairman, Department of Criminal Justice, Loyola University Chicago37
Kenyon E. Poole 1988Human SocietyProfessor of Economics, Northwestern University38
C. Herman Pritchett Human SocietyEmeritus Professor of Political Science, University of California, Santa Barbara and University of Chicago39
Sol Tax 19071995Human SocietyProfessor of Anthropology, University of Chicago (1948–1976); Director, Center for the Study of Man, Smithsonian Institution40
Charles Raymond Whittlesey 19001979Human SocietyEmeritus Professor of Finance and Economics, University of Pennsylvania41
Rudolf Arnheim 19042007ArtEmeritus professor of Psychology of Art, Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Harvard University42
Robert Jesse Charleston 19161994ArtKeeper, Department of Ceramics, Victoria and Albert Museum (1963–1976)43
Clifton Fadiman 19041999ArtMember, Board of Editors, Encyclopædia Britannica44
Francis Fergusson 19041986ArtProfessor of Comparative Literature, Rutgers University (1953–1969); Professor of Comparative Literature, Princeton University (1973–1981)45
John Gloag 18961981ArtNovelist and writer on architecture and industrial design46
Richard Griffith 19121969ArtCurator, Museum of Modern Art Film Library (1951–1965); Lecturer on Motion Pictures, Wesleyan University (1967–1969)47
Richard Hoggart 19182014ArtProfessor of English, University of Birmingham (1962–1973); Warden, Goldsmiths' College, University of London (1976–1984)48
Edward Lockspeiser 19051973ArtOfficier d'Académie, Paris; Writer and broadcaster on music.49
Roy McMullen 1984ArtAuthor, critic, and art historian50
Leonard B. Meyer 19182007ArtBenjamin Franklin Professor of Music and Humanities, University of Pennsylvania51
Michael Morrow 19291994ArtMusic editor, Encyclopædia Britannica; Director, Musica Reservata, London52
Beaumont Newhall 19081993ArtDirector, Eastman Kodak House (1958–1971); Visiting Professor of Art, University of New Mexico (1971–1984)53
Herbert Read 18931968ArtWatson Gordon Professor of Fine Art, University of Edinburgh (1931–1933); editor, The Burlington Magazine (1933–1939); Charles Eliot Norton professor of Poetry, Harvard University (1953–1954)54
Richard Roud 19291989ArtProgram Director, London (1959–1963) and New York (1963–1987) Film Festivals; Film critic, The Guardian (1963–1969)55
George Savage 1982ArtArt consultant; author of Porcelain Through the Ages, Pottery Through the Ages, and other works56
Wolfgang Stechow 18961974ArtProfessor of Fine Arts, Oberlin College (1940–1963)57
Joshua C. Taylor 1981ArtWilliam Rainey Harper Professor of Humanities and Professor of Art, University of Chicago (1963–1974); Director, National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution58
Everard M. Upjohn 1978ArtProfessor of Fine Arts, Columbia University (1951–1970)59
Pierre Verlet ArtChief Curator, Cluny Museum (1945–1965); Chief Curator, National Museum of Sèvres Porcelain (1945–1965); Chief Curator of Art Objects from the Middle Ages to the Modern Period, Louvre Museum (1945–1965)60
René Wellek 19031995ArtSterling Professor of Comparative Literature, Yale University (1952–1972)61
Glynne William Gladstone Wickham ArtEmeritus Professor of Drama, University of Bristol; Dean, Faculty of Arts (1970–1972)62
Raymond (Henry) Williams 1988ArtProfessor of Drama, University of Cambridge (1974–1983); Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge (1961–1988)63
Paul S. Wingert 1974ArtProfessor of Art History and Archaeology, Columbia University64
Bruno Zevi 19182000ArtProfessor of Architectural History, University of Rome (1963–1979)65
Konstantinos Apostolos Doxiadis 19141975TechnologyChairman, Doxiadis Associates International; Chairman, Board of Directors, Doxiadis Associates, Inc.; Washington D.C. Chairman, Board of Directors, Athens Technological Organization; President, Athens Center of Ekistics66
Eugene S. Ferguson 19162004TechnologyEmeritus Professor of History, University of Delaware; Curator of Technology, Hagley Museum, Greenville Delaware67
Melvin Kranzberg 19171995TechnologyCallaway Professor of the History of Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology (1972–1988)68
Harvey G. Mehlhouse TechnologyVice President, Western Electric Company, New York City (1965–1969); President (1969–1971); Chairman of the Board (1971–1972)69
Robert Smith Woodbury 1983TechnologyProfessor of the History of Technology, MIT70
Arthur Llewellyn Basham 19141986ReligionProfessor of Asian Civilizations, Australian National University71
James T. Burtchaell ReligionProfessor of Theology, University of Notre Dame; Provost (1970–1977)72
J. V. Langmead Casserley 1978ReligionProfessor of Apologetics, Seabury-Western Theological Seminary73
Ichiro Hori 1974ReligionProfessor of the History of Religions, Seijo University and Kokugakuin University74
Jaroslav Jan Pelikan 19232006ReligionSterling Professor of History, Yale University; President, American Academy of Arts and Sciences75
Jakob Josef Petuchowski 19251991ReligionSol and Arlene Bronstein Professor of Judeo-Christian Studies, Hebrew Union College, Jewish Institute of Religion, Cincinnati (1981–1991)76
Jacques Barzun 19072012The History of MankindUniversity Professor Emeritus, Columbia University; Dean of Faculties and Provost (1958–1967)77
Otto Allen Bird The Branches of KnowledgeEmeritus Professor of Arts and Letters, University of Notre Dame78
Wing-Tsit Chan 19011994The Branches of KnowledgeProfessor of Chinese Philosophy and Culture, Dartmouth College (1942–1966); Anna R. D. Gillespie Professor of Philosophy, Chatham University (1966–1982)79
William Herbert Dray 19212009The Branches of KnowledgeEmeritus Professor of Philosophy and of History, University of Ottawa80
Norwood Hanson 19241967The Branches of KnowledgeProfessor of Philosophy, Yale University (1963–1967)81
J. H. Hexter 19101996The Branches of KnowledgeCharles L. Stillé Professor of History, Yale University, (1967–1978); Distinguished Historian in residence, Washington University (1978–1986)82
Ernan V. McMullin The Branches of KnowledgeProfessor of Philosophy, University of Notre Dame83
Karl Menger 19021985The Branches of KnowledgeProfessor of Mathematics, Illinois Institute of Technology (1946–1971)84
Arthur Norman Prior 19141969The Branches of KnowledgeFellow, Balliol College, University of Oxford; Professor of Philosophy, Manchester University (1959–1966)85
Nicholas Rescher 1928The Branches of KnowledgeUniversity Professor of Philosophy, University of Pittsburgh; editor, American Philosophical Quarterly86
Seymour Schuster The Branches of KnowledgeProfessor of Mathematics, Carleton College87

See also


References


  1. Encyclopædia Britannica's President on Killing Off a 244-Year-Old Product (archived) by Jorge Cruz, Harvard Business Review March 2013
  2. Encyclopaedia Britannica's Transformation,[dead link] (transcript of a podcast) Bloomberg, cited 6 February 2014 Archive
  3. Adler, Mortimer J. (2007). "Circle of Learning". The New Encyclopædia Britannica, 15th edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.
  4. The dates of death in Table 2 were taken from the 2007 version of the Propædia, except recent (post-1999) deaths which were not noted.