Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea

The Korean Provisional Government (KPG), formally the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, was a partially recognized Korean government-in-exile based in Shanghai, China, and later in Chongqing, during the Japanese colonial rule of Korea.

Provisional Government of the
Republic of Korea
대한민국 임시정부 / 大韓民國 臨時政府
Daehanminguk Imsijeongbu
1919–1948
Motto: "대한독립만세!" (Korean)
"Long Live Korean Independence!"
Anthem: "Aegukga"[1]
Seal of the Provisional Government
Map of the Korean Peninsula showing the government's territorial claims; controlled and occupied by Japan.
StatusGovernment in exile
Capital
and largest city
Hanseong 19451948 (de jure)
Capital-in-exileShanghai 19191932
Hangzhou 19321935
Jiaxing 1935
Nanjing 19351937
Changsha 19371938
Guangzhou 19361939
Qijiang 19391940
Chungking 19401945
Official languagesKorean
GovernmentPresidential (19191925)
Parliamentary (19251940)
Presidential (19401948)
(All 3 Formed a Provisional Government)
President 
 19191925
19471948
Syngman Rhee
 19251925
Park Eunsik
 19251926
Yi Sang-ryong
 19351940
Yi Dongnyeong
 19261927
19401947
Kim Gu
Prime Minister 
 19191921
Yi Donghwi
 19241925
Park Eunsik
 19441945
Kim Kyu-sik
LegislatureProvisional Assembly
History 
1 March 1919
 Constitution adopted
17 March 1919 (Vladivostok)
11 April 1919 (Shanghai)
23 April 1919 (Seoul)
 Government unified
11 September 1919
6 June 1920
21 October 1920
29 April 1932
9 December 1941
27 November 1943
17 July 1945
15 August 1945
8 September 1945
3 October 1945
15 August 1948
CurrencyWon
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Korean Empire
1945:
Soviet Civil Administration in Korea
United States Army Military Government in Korea
1948:
First Republic of Korea
Today part ofChina
North Korea
South Korea
Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationDaehanmin(-)guk Imsijeongbu
McCune–ReischauerTaehanmin'guk Imsijŏngbu

On April 11, 1919, a provisional constitution providing for a democratic republic named the "Republic of Korea" was enacted. It introduced a presidential system and three branches (legislative, administrative and judicial) of government. The KPG inherited the territory of the former Korean Empire. The Korean resisters actively supported the independence movement under the provisional government, and received economic and military support from the Kuomintang of China, the Soviet Union and France.[2][3][4][5][6]

After the surrender of Japan on August 15, 1945, figures such as Kim Gu returned. On August 15, 1948, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was dissolved. Syngman Rhee, who was the first president of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, became the first President of the Republic of Korea in 1948. The current South Korean government claims through the 1987-amended constitution of South Korea that there is continuity between the KPG and the current South Korean state, though this has been criticized by some historians as constituting revisionism.

The sites of the Provisional Government in Shanghai and Chongqing (Chungking) have been preserved as museums.