Free State of Prussia

The Free State of Prussia (German: Freistaat Preußen, pronounced [ˌfʁaɪ̯ʃtaːt ˈpʁɔɪ̯sn̩] (listen)) was a state of Germany from 1918 to 1947. It was established in 1918 following the German Revolution, abolishing the German Empire and founding the Weimar Republic in the aftermath of the First World War. The new state was a direct successor to the Kingdom of Prussia, but featured a democratic, republican government and smaller area based on territorial changes after the war. Despite bearing the brunt of Germany's territorial losses in Europe, Prussia remained the dominant state of Germany, comprising almost 58 (62.5%) of the country's territory and population, and home to the federal capital, Berlin.[1] Prussia changed from the authoritarian state it had been under previous rulers to a democratic bastion within the Weimar Republic where (unlike in other states and at the federal level) democratic parties combined to win comfortable majorities in every free and fair election held.

Free State of Prussia
Freistaat Preußen
State of Germany
1918–1947

The Free State of Prussia in 1925
CapitalBerlin
Area 
 1925[1]
292,695.36 km2 (113,010.31 sq mi)
Population 
 1925[1]
38,175,986
History
Government
  TypeRepublic
  MottoGott mit uns
"God with us"
Reichsstatthalter 
 1933–1935
Adolf Hitler
 1935–1945
Hermann Göring
Minister-President 
 1918 (first)
Friedrich Ebert
 1933-1945 (last)
Hermann Göring
LegislatureState Diet
 Upper Chamber
State Council
 Lower Chamber
House of Representatives
Historical eraInterwar  World War II
9 November 1918
30 November 1920
20 July 1932
30 January 1933
30 January 1935
25 February 1947
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kingdom of Prussia
Allied-occupied Germany
Polish People's Republic
Soviet Union
Today part ofGermany
Poland
Russia
Lithuania

History of Brandenburg and Prussia
Northern March
965  983
Old Prussians
pre  13th century
Lutician federation
983  12th century
Margraviate of Brandenburg
1157  1618 (1806) (HRE)
(Bohemia 1373  1415)
Teutonic Order
1224  1525
(Polish fief 1466  1525)
Duchy of Prussia
1525  1618 (1701)
(Polish fief 1525  1657)
Royal (Polish) Prussia (Poland)
1454/1466  1772
Brandenburg-Prussia
1618  1701
Kingdom in Prussia
1701  1772
Kingdom of Prussia
1772  1918
Free State of Prussia (Germany)
1918  1947
Klaipėda Region
(Lithuania)
1920  1939 / 1945  present
Recovered Territories
(Poland)
1918/1945  present
Brandenburg
(Germany)
1947  1952 / 1990  present
Kaliningrad Oblast
(Russia)
1945  present

The Free State of Prussia's democratic government was overthrown in the Preußenschlag in 1932, placing the state under direct rule in a coup d'état led by Chancellor Franz von Papen and forcing Minister-President Otto Braun from office. The establishment of Nazi Germany in 1933 began the Gleichschaltung process, ending legal challenges to the Preußenschlag and placing Prussia under the direct rule of the National Socialist German Workers' Party, with Hermann Göring as Minister-President. In 1934, all German states were de facto replaced by the Gaue system and converted to rudimentary bodies, effectively ending Prussia as a single territorial unit of Germany. After the end of World War II in 1945, Otto Braun approached Allied officials in occupied Germany to reinstate the legal Prussian government, but was rejected and Prussia was abolished in 1947.


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