Ptolemy X Alexander I

Ptolemy X Alexander I[note 1] (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Ἀλέξανδρος, Ptolemaĩos Aléxandros) was King of Egypt from 107 BC till his death in 88 BC, in co-regency with Cleopatra III as Ptolemy Philometor Soter until 101 BC, and then with Berenice III as Ptolemy Philadelphus. He was a son of Ptolemy VIII Physcon and Cleopatra III, and younger brother of Ptolemy IX. His birth name was probably Alexander.

When Ptolemy VIII died in 116 BC, Ptolemy IX became king with Cleopatra III as his co-regent and Ptolemy X was sent to Cyprus to serve as governor. However, in 114–13 BC, he declared himself king. Cleopatra III quarrelled with Ptolemy IX and arranged for Ptolemy X to return to Egypt in 107 BC and replace his brother as co-regent. The pair fought a war against Ptolemy IX in the Hasmonean kingdom (103–102 BC), in which Ptolemy X successfully prevented his brother from invading Egypt. In 101 BC, Ptolemy X had his mother murdered and appointed his niece-wife Berenice III as co-regent. An Egyptian uprising in 91 BC caused him to lose control of the south of the country. In 88 BC, the people expelled him from Alexandria, recalling Ptolemy IX to the throne. Ptolemy X raised an army with Roman help and invaded Cyprus, but was killed.