Public administration

Public Administration (a form of governance) or Public Policy and Administration (an academic discipline) is the implementation of public policy, administration of government establishment (public governance), management of non-profit establishment (nonprofit governance), and also a subfield of political science taught in public policy schools that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants, especially those in administrative positions for working in the public sector, voluntary sector,[1] some industries in the private sector dealing with government relations and regulatory affairs, and those working as think tank researchers. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" whose fundamental goal is to "advance management and policies so that government can function."[2] Some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: "the management of public programs";[3] the "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day";[4] and "the study of government decision making, the analysis of the policies themselves, the various inputs that have produced them, and the inputs necessary to produce alternative policies."[5] The word public administration is the combination of two words—public and administration. In every sphere of social, economic and political life there is administration which means that for the proper functioning of the organization or institution it must be properly ruled or managed and from this concept emerges the idea of administration.

Public administration is both an academic discipline and a field of practice; the latter is depicted in this picture of United States federal public servants at a meeting.

In the United States in the 1880s, civil servants and academics like Woodrow Wilson worked to reform the civil service system and bring public administration into the realm of science[6]. However, "until the mid-twentieth century, when German sociologist Max Weber's theory of bureaucracy prevailed," he said, "there was no great interest in the theory of public administration. The field is multidisciplinary in character, and one of the various proposals for sub-fields of public administration sets out six pillars, including human resources, organizational theory, policy analysis, statistics, budgeting, and ethics.[6] Public administration is a segment of the larger field of administration. It is simply regarded as bureaucracy, heedless to the fact that bureaucracy as a particular organizational form is not only found in the government, but also in private and third sector organizations.(Dhameja,2003, p.2). Public Administration is a discipline which is concerned with the organization and the formulation and implementation of public policies for the welfare of the people. It functions in a political setting in order to accomplish the goals and objectives, which are formulated by the political decision makers. The focus of public administration, thus, is on public bureaucracy. The subject got its major boost after the Minnowbrook conference held at Syracuse university in the year 1968, presided over by Dwight Waldo. It was this time when the concept of New Public Administration emerged.

Thus, public administration as a course of government action in relation to public policy as an outline of what government wants to do plays an important role in our society. It can be understood as the course of action or inaction by the government with regard to a particular issue or set of issues. It can be associated with formally approved policy goals and means, as well as the regulations and practices of agencies that implement the programs.The relationship between what the government (public administration) wants to accomplish and what actually occurs is carried by public policy. Therefore, the ultimate goal of all public policies is to achieve particular objectives that the government has in mind. The nation's citizens' welfare is a major consideration in the formulation and implementation of these programs. Because of this, the public's opinion, for one, exerts considerable pressure on the course of government (public administration) policies.


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