Pulmonary fibrosis

Pulmonary fibrosis is a condition in which the lungs become scarred over time.[1] Symptoms include shortness of breath, a dry cough, feeling tired, weight loss, and nail clubbing.[1] Complications may include pulmonary hypertension, respiratory failure, pneumothorax, and lung cancer.[2]

Pulmonary fibrosis
Other namesInterstitial pulmonary fibrosis
Clubbing of the fingers in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
SpecialtyPulmonology
SymptomsShortness of breath, dry cough, feeling tired, weight loss, nail clubbing[1]
ComplicationsPulmonary hypertension, respiratory failure, pneumothorax, lung cancer[2]
CausesTobacco smoking, environmental pollution, certain medications, connective tissue diseases, interstitial lung disease, unknown[1][3]
TreatmentOxygen therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation, lung transplantation[4]
MedicationPirfenidone, nintedanib[4]
PrognosisPoor[3]
Frequency>5 million people[5]

Causes include environmental pollution, certain medications, connective tissue diseases, infections, and interstitial lung diseases.[1][3][6] Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), an interstitial lung disease of unknown cause, is most common.[1][3] Diagnosis may be based on symptoms, medical imaging, lung biopsy, and lung function tests.[1]

There is no cure and there are limited treatment options available.[1] Treatment is directed towards efforts to improve symptoms and may include oxygen therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation.[1][4] Certain medications may be used to try to slow the worsening of scarring.[4] Lung transplantation may occasionally be an option.[3] At least 5 million people are affected globally.[5] Life expectancy is generally less than five years.[3]


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This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Pulmonary fibrosis, and is written by contributors. Text is available under a CC BY-SA 4.0 International License; additional terms may apply. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.