Qajar Iran

Qajar Iran (listen ), also referred to as Qajar Persia,[7] the Qajar Empire,[lower-alpha 1] Sublime State of Persia, officially the Sublime State of Iran (Persian: دولت عَلیّهٔ ایران Dowlat-e 'Aliyye-ye Irân) and also known as the Guarded Domains of Iran (Persian: ممالک محروسهٔ ایران Mamâlek-e Mahruse-ye Irân[8]), was an Iranian state[9] ruled by the Qajar dynasty, which was of Turkic origin,[10][11][12] specifically from the Qajar tribe, from 1789 to 1925.[13][14] The Qajar family took full control of Iran in 1794, deposing Lotf 'Ali Khan, the last Shah of the Zand dynasty, and re-asserted Iranian sovereignty over large parts of the Caucasus. In 1796, Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar seized Mashhad with ease,[15] putting an end to the Afsharid dynasty. He was formally crowned as Shah after his punitive campaign against Iran's Georgian subjects.[16]

Sublime State of Iran
دولت عَلیّهٔ ایران
Dowlat-e 'Aliyye-ye Irân
Anthem: (1873–1909)
Salâm-e Shâh
(Royal salute)

Salâmati-ye Dowlat-e 'Aliyye-ye Irân
(Salute of the Sublime State of Iran)
Map of Iran under the Qajar dynasty in the 19th century.
Map of Iran under the Qajar dynasty in the 19th century.
Common languages
Shia Islam (official)
minority religions: Sunni Islam, Sufism, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, Baháʼí Faith, Mandaeism
 1789–1797 (first)
Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar
 1909–1925 (last)
Ahmad Shah Qajar
Prime minister 
 1906 (first)
Mirza Nasrullah Khan
 1923–1925 (last)
Reza Pahlavi
LegislatureNone (rule by decree) (until 1906)
National Consultative Assembly (since 1906)
24 October 1813
10 February 1828
4 March 1857
21 September 1881
5 August 1906
 Deposed by Constituent Assembly
31 October 1925
1873[5]1,300,000 km2 (500,000 sq mi)
Currencytoman (1789–1825)
qiran (1825–1925)[6]
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Zand dynasty
Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti
Afsharid Iran
Pahlavi Iran

In the Caucasus, the Qajar dynasty permanently lost much territory[17] to the Russian Empire over the course of the 19th century, comprising modern-day eastern Georgia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.[18] Despite its territorial losses, Qajar Iran reinvented the Iranian notion of kingship[19] and maintained relative political independence, but faced major challenges to its sovereignty, predominantly from the Russian and British empires. Foreign advisers became powerbrokers in the court and military. They eventually partitioned Qajar Iran in the 1907 Anglo-Russian Convention, carving out Russian and British influence zones and a neutral zone.[20][21][22]

In the early 20th century, the Persian Constitutional Revolution created an elected parliament or Majilis, and sought the establishment of a constitutional monarchy, deposing Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar for Ahmad Shah Qajar, but many of the constitutional reforms were reversed by an intervention led by the Russian Empire.[20][23] Qajar Iran's territorial integrity was further weakened during the Persian campaign of World War I and the invasion by the Ottoman Empire. Four years after the 1921 Persian coup d'état, Reza Shah took power in 1925 and formed the Imperial State of Persia.

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