Qingdao (/ɪŋˈd/, also spelled Tsingtao; Chinese: 青岛, Mandarin: [tɕʰíŋtàu]) is a major city in eastern Shandong Province. The city's name in Chinese characters literally means "greenish-blue island".[2] Located on China's Yellow Sea coast, it is a major nodal city of the One Belt, One Road (OBOR) Initiative that connects Asia with Europe.[3] It has the highest GDP of any city in the province. Administered at the sub-provincial level,[4] Qingdao has jurisdiction over six districts and four county-level cities. As of the 2010 census, Qingdao built-up (or metro) area made of the 7 urban Districts was home to 5,764,384 inhabitants.[5] Lying across the Shandong Peninsula and looking out to the Yellow Sea, it borders the prefecture-level cities of Yantai to the northeast, Weifang to the west and Rizhao to the southwest.

Clockwise from top left: Qingdao's skyline, St. Michael's Cathedral, Qingdao harbor, a temple at the base of Mount Lao, and May Fourth Square
Location of Qingdao city (red) on China's eastern coast
Location of the municipal government
Qingdao (Shandong)
Coordinates (Qingdao municipal government): 36°04′01″N 120°22′58″E
Lease to Germany6 March 1898
Japanese occupation7 November 1914
Return to China10 December 1922
Japanese Occupation10 January 1938
Return to China15 August 1945
Municipal seat11, Xianggangzhong Rd, Shinan District
  TypeSub-provincial city
  BodyQingdao Municipal People's Congress
  CCP Secretaryvacant as of January 2021
  Congress ChairmanWang Luming
  MayorZhao Haozhi
  CPPCC ChairmanYang Jun
  Prefecture-level and Sub-provincial city11,067 km2 (4,273 sq mi)
  Land11,067 km2 (4,273 sq mi)
3,239 km2 (1,251 sq mi)
5,019 km2 (1,938 sq mi)
 (2020 (global) , 2010 (for the rest)[1])
  Prefecture-level and Sub-provincial city10,071,722
  Density910/km2 (2,400/sq mi)
  Urban density1,800/km2 (4,600/sq mi)
  Metro density1,100/km2 (3,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
Area code(s)0532
ISO 3166 codeCN-SD-02
GDP¥ 1.2 trillion
(US$140 billion)
GDP per capita¥ 127,745
License Plate Prefix鲁B & 鲁U
Coastline862.64 km (536.02 mi)
(inclusive of offshore islands)
730.64 km (454.00 mi)
(exclusive of islands)
Major NationalitiesHan: 99.86%
County-level divisions10
"Qingdao" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese青岛
Traditional Chinese青島
Literal meaning"Cyan Isle"
German name

Qingdao is a major seaport and naval base, as well as a commercial and financial center. It is home to electronics multinationals such as Haier and Hisense. The Jiaozhou Bay Bridge, links the main urban area of Qingdao with Huangdao district, straddling the Jiaozhou Bay sea areas. Its historic, German-style architecture and Tsingtao Brewery, the second largest brewery in China[6] are legacies of the German occupation (1898-1914).

In the 2020 Global Financial Centers Index, Qingdao ranked 47th; the index is published by the Z/Yen Group and China Development Institute, the other Chinese cities on the list being Shanghai, Hong Kong, Beijing, Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Nanjing, Xi'an, Tianjin, Hangzhou, Dalian, and Wuhan.[7] In 2007, Qingdao was named as one of China's top ten cities by the Chinese Cities Brand Value Report, which was released at the 2007 Beijing Summit of China Cities Forum.[8] In 2009, Qingdao was named China's most livable city by the Chinese Institute of City Competitiveness.[9][10] In 2018, Qingdao held the Shanghai Cooperation Organization summit.[11] In 2020, Qingdao was rated as a Gamma+ level global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.[12]

Qingdao is also a major city for global scientific research as tracked by the Nature Index according to the Nature Index 2020 Science Cities.[13] The city is home to several notable universities, including the Ocean University of China, one of China's prestigious universities as a member of Project 985, and China University of Petroleum (East China), a member of the Project 211.