Quartet on the Middle East


The Quartet on the Middle East or Middle East Quartet, sometimes called the Diplomatic Quartet or Madrid Quartet or simply the Quartet, is a foursome of nations and international and supranational entities involved in mediating the Israeli–Palestinian peace process. The Quartet comprises the United Nations, the United States, the European Union, and Russia. The group was established in Madrid in 2002, recalling Madrid Conference of 1991, as a result of the escalating conflict in the Middle East.

Offices of the Quartet in Jerusalem

In 2002, the Quartet established the Office of the Quartet in East Jerusalem to take "tangible steps on the ground to advance the Palestinian economy and preserve the possibility of a two state solution."[1] Kito de Boer was the head of the Office from January 2015 to June 2017,[2] assuming the position after the resignation of Tony Blair.[3] The objective of the head of the Office is to promote the Quartet’s strategy on Palestinian economic and institutional empowerment, including matters concerning rule of law and economic development, as well as movement and access.[4] The current head of the Office is John N. Clarke.[5]

On 23 March, 2021, the Quartet discussed the reviving of "meaningful negotiations" between Israel and the Palestinians who both need "to refrain from unilateral actions that make a two-state solution more difficult to achieve."[6][7]

History


The initiative to establish the Quartet evolved following the outbreak of the Second Intifada in September 2000 and the futile cease-fire attempts that followed. On October 25, 2001, representatives of the EU, UN and the US and Russian governments met Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat and jointly expressed support for his policy of implementing cease-fire and security reforms in the Palestinian Authority.[8] During the Israeli incursions into Palestinian areas in April 2002, the representatives of the same four entities met in Madrid and again called for implementation of cease-fire agreements brokered by the US government before. In the same meeting, they also agreed to transform their quadripartite cooperation into a permanent forum for follow-up of the Israeli-Palestinian peace process.[9]

Special Envoys


James Wolfensohn, the former president of the World Bank, was appointed Special Envoy for Israel's disengagement from Gaza in April 2005.[10] He stepped down the following year because of restrictions in dealing with the Islamic militant group Hamas and the withholding of money from the Palestinian Authority, risking its collapse.[11]

Tony Blair announced that he had accepted the position of the official envoy of the Quartet, the same day he resigned as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and as a Member of Parliament on 27 June 2007.[12] The approval came after initial objections by Russia.[13] The United Nations were overseeing the finances and security of his mission, before his resignation on 27 May 2015.[14][3]

The special envoy from November 2015 to January 2017 was the Dutch national Kito de Boer.[2]

John N. Clarke was appointed as special envoy on 17 January 2018. He previously held the position as deputy head of mission.[15]

Peace efforts and actions


Tony Blair periodically travelled to the Middle East following his appointment as Special Envoy. On a trip there in March 2008, he met with Israeli leaders to discuss recent violence. A planned meeting between Israeli and Palestinian businessmen was postponed due to recent fighting.[16] In May 2008 Blair announced a new plan for peace and for Palestinian rights, based heavily on the ideas of the Peace Valley plan.[17]

In an August 2009 interview, Blair said that he would like to see Hamas and Hezbollah included in peace talks but under the right conditions, that religious leaders should be more involved in the peace process, and that resolving the conflict could be easier than it was in Northern Ireland.[18]

In a speech given in Israel on August 24, 2010, Blair sharply criticised the campaign of "delegitimization" being carried out by enemies of Israel and proponents of the Palestinians, which refuses to grant Israel its legitimate right to its own point of view and self-defense. "Don't apply rules to the Government of Israel that you would never dream of applying to your own country," he said. He characterized such double standards and prejudice as being an "affront to humanity" which "it is a democratic duty to counter."[19]

In July 2016, the Quartet reported:

The continuing policy of settlement construction and expansion in the West Bank and East Jerusalem, designation of land for exclusive Israeli use, and denial of Palestinian development, including the recent high rate of demolitions, is steadily eroding the viability of the two-state solution. This raises legitimate questions about Israel’s long-term intentions, which are compounded by the statements of some Israeli ministers that there should never be a Palestinian state. In fact, the transfer of greater powers and responsibilities to Palestinian civil authority...has effectively been stopped.

It was within this context that the United Nations passed Security Council Resolution 2334 in December 2016 in another bid to address the settlement question.[20][21] The report was significantly altered to appease Israel and as well as urging Israel to stop its settlement policy, urged Palestine to end incitement to violence.[22][23]

In a speech to the UN General Assembly in September, 2018, Mahmoud Abbas called Donald Trump's policies towards Palestinians an “assault on international law”. He said the US is “too biased towards Israel” indicating that others could broker talks and that the US could participate as a member of the Middle East peace Quartet.[24] Abbas reiterated this position at a UN Security Council meeting on February 11, 2020.[25][26]

As of 16 September 2020, the UN has not been able to gather the consensus necessary for the Quartet or a group of countries linked to the Quartet to meet.[27][28] On 25 September 2020, at the UN, Abbas called for an international conference early in 2021 to “launch a genuine peace process."[29]

On 15 February 2021, the quartet envoys met virtually and agreed to meet on a regular basis to continue their engagement.[30] On 23 March, 2021, the Quartet discussed the reviving of "meaningful negotiations" between Israel and the Palestinians who both need "to refrain from unilateral actions that make a two-state solution more difficult to achieve."[6][7]

Representatives


Criticism and shortcomings


Despite the significance officially attached to the Quartet's part in promoting the peace process, many of its statements are merely repetition of previous statements and no significant changes in policy by either the Israeli government or the Palestinian Authority have occurred resulting from a Quartet meeting.[31]

The Quartet has been fiercely criticized for its ineffectiveness. When Tony Blair held the function of Quartet representative, in December 2012, Palestinian officials said that "Tony Blair shouldn't take it personally, but he should pack up his desk at the Office of the Quartet Representative in Jerusalem and go home. They said his job, and the body he represents, are ′useless, useless, useless′".[32]

The Center for Middle East Policy said in February 2012 that "The Quartet has little to show for its decade-long involvement in the peace process. ... Having spent most of the last three years in a state of near paralysis, and having failed to dissuade the Palestinians from seeking UN membership and recognition in September 2011, the Quartet has finally reached the limits of its utility. ... The current mechanism is too outdated, dysfunctional, and discredited to be reformed. Instead of undertaking another vain attempt to 'reactivate' the Quartet, the United States, the European Union, United Nations, and Russia should simply allow the existing mechanism to go quietly into the night,".[32]

Main sessions


The Quartet's meetings [33][lower-alpha 1] have been held on the following dates:

  • May 2, 2002
  • July 16, 2002a
  • September 17, 2002
  • December 20, 2002
  • February 19, 2003
  • June 22, 2003
  • September 26, 2003
  • December 11, 2003
  • May 4, 2004
  • July 7–8, 2004
  • September 22, 2004
  • March 1, 2005
  • April 14, 2005
  • May 9, 2005
  • June 23, 2005
  • September 20, 2005
  • October 28, 2005
  • December 5, 2005
  • January 26, 2006
  • March 30, 2006
  • May 9, 2006
  • June 17, 2006
  • September 20, 2006
  • November 15, 2006
  • December 22, 2006
  • February 2, 2007
  • February 21, 2007
  • March 21, 2007
  • May 30, 2007
  • June 27, 2007
  • July 20, 2007
  • September 23, 2007
  • November 26, 2007
  • December 18, 2007
  • May 2, 2008
  • June 24, 2008
  • September 26, 2008
  • November 9, 2008
  • June 26, 2009
  • September 24, 2009
  • March 19, 2010
  • May 11, 2010
  • June 21, 2010
  • August 20, 2010
  • May 20, 2011
  • July 11, 2011b
  • August 16, 2011c
  • September 23, 2011d
  • October 9, 2011e
  • October 26, 2011f
  • December 14, 2011
  • January 3, 2012
  • March 12, 2012
  • April 11, 2012
  • July 30, 2013
  • September 27, 2013
  • January 26, 2015
  • February 8, 2015
  • May 27, 2015
  • September 9, 2015
  • September 30, 2015
  • October 23, 2015
  • December 16/17, 2015
  • February 8/9, 2016
  • March 28, 2016
  • July 1, 2016g
  • September 23, 2016
  • July 13, 2017 [34]
  • July 22, 2017 [35]
  • September 28, 2017 [36]
  • September 26, 2018 [37]
  • 23 December 2020 & 15 February 2021 [38]
  • March 23, 2021 [39]
  • a  Proclaimed the Road Map for the two-state solution.
  • b  Convened in order to find a formula for restarting bilateral negotiations; ended without any results.
  • c  Condemned settlement expansion in Ariel and East Jerusalem.[40]
  • d  Issued a new schedule for resumption of negotiations between the Israeli government and the Palestinian Authority, which called for completing negotiations by end of 2012.[41]
  • e  Called upon the parties to resume negotiations.[42]
  • f  Meeting with Israeli and Palestinian negotiators in Jerusalem.
  • g  A report offered recommendations on the way forward, urging Israel to stop its settlement policy and Palestine to end incitement to violence.[43]

See also


References


  1. Statement, Quartet Envoys., 11 June 2015.
  2. "Welcome to the website of the Office of the Quartet". Archived April 2, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  3. Josh May (May 27, 2015). "Tony Blair resigns as Middle East peace envoy". Politics Home. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
  4. "Lessons in Leadership: A Conversation with Kito de Boer". Harvard Kennedy School.
  5. "Who we are". Office of the Quartet. Retrieved August 25, 2020.
  6. "Mideast Quartet Discusses Reviving 'Meaningful' Israel, Palestinian Peace Talks". Haaretz. March 24, 2021. Retrieved March 24, 2021.
  7. "Statement by the Middle East Quartet Envoys". UNSCO. March 23, 2021. Retrieved March 24, 2021.
  8. "Quartet meeting, statement – UNSCO press release (25 October 2001)". unispal.un.org. Archived from the original on October 3, 2011.
  9. "S/2002/369 of 10 April 2002". unispal.un.org. Archived from the original on October 3, 2011.
  10. "Secretary-General Welcoms James Wolfensohn's Appointment by Quartet" (Press release). United Nations. April 14, 2005.
  11. Stephen Farrell (May 3, 2006). "West 'has to prevent collapse' of Palestinian Authority". The Times. Retrieved September 2, 2007.
  12. "Blair appointed Middle East envoy". BBC News. June 27, 2007. Retrieved September 2, 2007.
  13. "Quartet at loggerheads over scope of authority for Mideast envoy". Haaretz. June 27, 2007. Retrieved September 2, 2007.
  14. United Nations Security Council Verbatim Report 5736. S/PV/5736 29 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-02.
  15. "Appointment of New Head of Mission of the Office of the Quartet". Office of the Quartet. January 17, 2018. Retrieved August 25, 2020.
  16. Herb Keinon, Hilary Leila Krieger, and Tovah Lazaroff, "Livni: Israel not expanding settlements", Jerusalem Post, 3/13/08.
  17. Israel may ease grip in Tony Blair deal to revive West Bank Archived September 23, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, The Times May 14, 2008
  18. "Terrasanta.net" (in Italian). Theholylandreview.net. Archived from the original on May 30, 2012. Retrieved August 20, 2010.
  19. Tony Blair, "It is a democratic duty to counter delegitimisation of Israel," full text at "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 19, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) and summarized by Herb Keinon in the Jerusalem Post of Aug. 25, 2010, "Delegitimization of Israel is affront to humanity," at http://www.jpost.com/Israel/Article.aspx?id=185860.%5B%5D
  20. Shahram Akbarzadeh; Kylie Baxter (June 13, 2018). Middle East Politics and International Relations. Taylor & Francis. pp. 77–78. ISBN 978-1-351-67715-8.
  21. "Report of the Middle East Quartet". UN. July 1, 2016. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
  22. "Israel/Palestine: Parameters for a Two-State Settlement". International Crisis Group. November 28, 2016. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
  23. "Diplomatic Quartet releases report on advancing two-state solution to Israel-Palestine conflict". UN. July 1, 2016. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
  24. "Rejecting Trump, Abbas at UN says US is too biased to mediate peace talks". September 27, 2018. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
  25. "Security Council Report" (PDF).
  26. "A New 'Quartet' for Israeli-Palestinian Peace". July 20, 2020. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
  27. "UN unable to convene Quartet to discuss annexation". MEMO. June 27, 2020. Retrieved September 25, 2020.
  28. "Abraham Accord, Quartet – Press Conference by Secretary-General António Guterres at UN Headquarters (SG/SM/20258) (Excerpts)". UN. September 25, 2020. Retrieved September 25, 2020.
  29. "Palestinian leader calls for new peace process in UN speech". WAPO. September 25, 2020. Retrieved September 25, 2020.
  30. "A New Tune From The Middle East Quartet – OpEd". Eurasia review. February 26, 2021. Retrieved March 24, 2021.
  31. Nathalie Tocci. "The EU, the Middle East Quartet and (In)effective Multilateralism" (PDF).[permanent dead link]
  32. ′Useless, useless, useless′: the Palestinian verdict on Tony Blair's job Archived November 27, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Matthew Kalman, The Independent, 16 December 2012
  33. "Quartet Statements". Office of the Quartet. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
  34. "Quartet Envoys' Joint Press Statement". July 13, 2017.
  35. "Quartet Envoys' Joint Press Statement". UNSCO. July 22, 2017.
  36. "Quartet Envoys' Joint Press Statement".
  37. "Middle East Quartet Envoys' Joint Press Statement". UNSCO. September 26, 2018.
  38. "Middle East Coordinator Encouraged by Steady Advance towards Holding Palestinian Elections, Urges Parties Continue Dialogue, in Briefing to Security Council | Meetings Coverage and Press Releases". www.un.org. no-break space character in |title= at position 81 (help)
  39. "Statement by the Middle East Quartet Envoys". March 23, 2021.
  40. "Quartet statement on new housing units in "Ariel" and East Jerusalem – Press release (16 August 2011)". unispal.un.org. Archived from the original on October 3, 2011.
  41. "Statement of September 23, 2011".
  42. "Statement by EU High Representative Ashton after the Quartet envoys' meeting in Brussels – EU Press release/Non-UN document (9 October 2011)". unispal.un.org. Archived from the original on October 15, 2014.
  43. "Diplomatic Quartet releases report on advancing two-state solution to Israel-Palestine conflict". July 1, 2016. Retrieved March 24, 2021.
  1. The official site gives statements up to 30 March 2016