Juliana of the Netherlands

Juliana (Dutch pronunciation: [ˌjyliˈjaːnaː]; Juliana Louise Emma Marie Wilhelmina; 30 April 1909 – 20 March 2004) was Queen of the Netherlands from 1948 until her abdication in 1980.

Juliana
Juliana in 1981
Queen of the Netherlands
Reign4 September 1948 – 30 April 1980
Inauguration6 September 1948
PredecessorWilhelmina
SuccessorBeatrix
Prime MinistersSee list
Born(1909-04-30)30 April 1909
Noordeinde Palace, The Hague, Netherlands
Died20 March 2004(2004-03-20) (aged 94)
Soestdijk Palace, Baarn, Netherlands
Burial30 March 2004
Nieuwe Kerk, Delft, Netherlands
Spouse
Issue
HouseOrange-Nassau (official)
Mecklenburg (agnatic)
FatherDuke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
MotherWilhelmina of the Netherlands
ReligionDutch Reformed Church

Juliana was the only child of Queen Wilhelmina and Prince Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. She received a private education and studied international law at the University of Leiden. In 1937, she married Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld with whom she had four daughters: Beatrix, Irene, Margriet, and Christina. During the German invasion of the Netherlands in the Second World War, the royal family was evacuated to the United Kingdom. Juliana then relocated to Canada with her children, while Wilhelmina and Bernhard remained in Britain. The royal family returned to the Netherlands after its liberation in 1945.

Due to Wilhelmina's failing health, Juliana took over royal duties briefly in 1947 and 1948. In September 1948 Wilhelmina abdicated and Juliana ascended to the Dutch throne. Her reign saw the decolonization and independence of the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) and Suriname. Despite a series of controversies involving the royal family, Juliana remained a popular figure among the Dutch.

In April 1980, Juliana abdicated in favour of her eldest daughter Beatrix. Upon her death in 2004 at the age of 94, she was the longest-lived former reigning monarch in the world.


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