The R-7 Semyorka (Russian: Р-7 Семёрка), officially the GRAU index 8K71, was a Soviet missile developed during the Cold War, and the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-7 made 28 launches between 1957 and 1961, but was never deployed operationally. A derivative, the R-7A, was deployed from 1959 to 1968. To the West it was unknown until its launch (later it would get the NATO reporting name SS-6 Sapwood). In modified form, it launched Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite, into orbit, and became the basis for the R-7 family which includes Sputnik, Luna, Molniya, Vostok, and Voskhod space launchers, as well as later Soyuz variants.
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|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|In service||9 February 1959 – 1968|
|Used by||Strategic Missile Troops|
|Mass||280 metric tons (280 long tons; 310 short tons)|
|Diameter||10.3 m (34 ft)|
|Effective firing range||8,000–8,800 km (5,000–5,500 mi)|
|Warhead||A single KB-11-derived, 5,300–5,500 kg (11,700–12,100 lb), 7.27 m (23.9 ft) diameter, 3 to 5 Mt, thermonuclear warhead|
|12x vernier thrusters arranged around the booster clusters and the core engines|
|Accuracy||2.5–5.0 kilometers (max. deviation 10 kilometers)|
The widely used nickname for the R-7 launcher, "Semyorka", means "digit 7" in Russian.