Taiwan

Taiwan,[upper-roman 2] officially the Republic of China (ROC),[upper-roman 1][lower-alpha 8] is a country in East Asia.[20][21] It shares maritime borders with the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The main island of Taiwan has an area of 35,808 square kilometres (13,826 sq mi), with mountain ranges dominating the eastern two-thirds and plains in the western third, where its highly urbanised population is concentrated. The capital is Taipei, which, along with New Taipei and Keelung, forms the largest metropolitan area of Taiwan. Other major cities include Kaohsiung, Taichung, Tainan and Taoyuan. With 23.57 million inhabitants, Taiwan is among the most densely populated countries in the world.

Republic of China
Anthem: 中華民國國歌
Zhōnghuá Mínguó guógē
"National Anthem of the Republic of China"
Flag anthem: 中華民國國旗歌
Zhōnghuá Míngúo Gúoqígē
"National Flag Anthem of the Republic of China"
National seal
中華民國之璽
"Seal of the Republic of China"

National flower

梅花
Plum blossom
CapitalTaipei[lower-alpha 1][2]
25°04′N 121°31′E
Largest cityNew Taipei
Official languagesNone[lower-alpha 2][5]

Official scriptTraditional Chinese[6]
National languages[lower-alpha 3]
Ethnic groups
>95% Han Taiwanese
—70% Hoklo
—14% Hakka
—14% Waishengren
2% Indigenous[10][lower-alpha 5]
Religion
Demonym(s)Taiwanese[11]
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential constitutional republic
 President
Tsai Ing-wen
Lai Ching-te
 Premier
Su Tseng-chang
Yu Shyi-kun
Chen Chu
Hsu Tzong-li
Huang Jong-tsun
LegislatureLegislative Yuan
Formation
 Establishment
1 January 1912
 Took control of Taiwan and the Pescadores[lower-alpha 6]
25 October 1945
25 December 1947
20 May 1948
7 December 1949
16 July 1992
Area
 Total
36,197 km2 (13,976 sq mi)[12][11]
Population
 2020 estimate
23,568,378[13] (56th)
 2010 census
23,123,866[14]
 Density
650/km2 (1,683.5/sq mi) (10th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
 Total
$1.403 trillion[15] (19th)
 Per capita
$56,959[15] (13th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
 Total
$759,104 billion[15] (21st)
 Per capita
$32,123[16] (29th)
Gini (2017) 34.1[17]
medium
HDI (2019) 0.916[18]
very high · 23rd
CurrencyNew Taiwan dollar (NT$) (TWD)
Time zoneUTC+8 (National Standard Time)
Date format
Mains electricity110 V–60 Hz[lower-alpha 7]
Driving sideright
Calling code+886
ISO 3166 codeTW
Internet TLD

Austronesian-speaking ancestors of Taiwanese indigenous peoples settled the island around 6,000 years ago. In the 17th century, large-scale Han Chinese immigration to western Taiwan began under a Dutch colony and continued under the Kingdom of Tungning. The island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China, and ceded to the Empire of Japan in 1895. The Republic of China, which had overthrown the Qing in 1911, took control of Taiwan on behalf of the World War II Allies following the surrender of Japan in 1945. The resumption of the Chinese Civil War resulted in the ROC's loss of mainland China to forces of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and retreat to Taiwan in 1949. Its effective jurisdiction has since been limited to Taiwan and numerous smaller islands.

In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of rapid economic growth and industrialisation called the "Taiwan Miracle". In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the ROC transitioned from a one-party military dictatorship to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system. Taiwan's export-oriented industrial economy is the 21st-largest in the world by nominal GDP, and 20th-largest by PPP measures, with major contributions from steel, machinery, electronics and chemicals manufacturing. Taiwan is a developed country,[22][23] ranking 15th in GDP per capita. It is ranked highly in terms of political and civil liberties,[24] education, health care[25] and human development.[lower-alpha 9][18]

The political status of Taiwan is contentious. The ROC no longer represents China as a member of the United Nations, after UN members voted in 1971 to recognize the PRC instead. Meanwhile, the ROC continued to claim to be the legitimate representative of China and its territory, although this has been downplayed since its democratization in the 1990s. Taiwan is claimed by the PRC, which refuses diplomatic relations with countries that recognise the ROC. Taiwan maintains official diplomatic relations with 14 out of 193 UN member states and the Holy See,[29][30] though many others maintain unofficial diplomatic ties with Taiwan through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. International organisations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only on a non-state basis under various names. Domestically, the major political contention is between parties favouring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a pan-Chinese identity contrasted with those aspiring to formal international recognition and promoting a Taiwanese identity, although both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.[31][32]