Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo (pronunciation  French: République du Congo, Kituba: Repubilika ya Kôngo), also known as Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo Republic[8][9] or simply either Congo or the Congo, is a country located in the western coast of Central Africa. The country is bordered to the west by Gabon, to its northwest by Cameroon and its northeast by the Central African Republic, to the southeast by the DR Congo, to its south by the Angolan exclave of Cabinda and to its southwest by the Atlantic Ocean. French is the official language of the Republic of the Congo.

Republic of the Congo
République du Congo  (French)
Repubilika ya Kôngo  (Kituba)
Republíki ya Kongó  (Lingala)
Motto: "Unité, Travail, Progrès" (French)
(English: "Unity, Work, Progress")
Anthem: La Congolaise  (French)
Besi Kôngo  (Kongo)
(English: "The Congolese")
and largest city
4°16′S 15°17′E
Official languagesFrench
Recognised national languages[1]
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party semi-presidential republic
Denis Sassou Nguesso
Anatole Collinet Makosso
National Assembly
 Republic established
28 November 1958
 from France
15 August 1960
342,000 km2 (132,000 sq mi) (64th)
 Water (%)
 2018 estimate
5,244,359[3][4] (117th)
12.8/km2 (33.2/sq mi) (204th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
$32.516 billion
 Per capita
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
$11.162 billion
 Per capita
Gini (2011)40.2[6]
HDI (2019) 0.574[7]
medium · 149th
CurrencyCentral African CFA franc (XAF)
Time zoneUTC+1 (WAT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+242
ISO 3166 codeCG

The region was dominated by Bantu-speaking tribes at least 3,000 years ago, who built trade links leading into the Congo River basin. Congo was formerly part of the French colony of Equatorial Africa.[10] The Republic of the Congo was established on 28 November 1958 and gained independence from France in 1960. It was a Marxist–Leninist state from 1969 to 1992, under the name People's Republic of the Congo. The sovereign state has had multi-party elections since 1992, although a democratically elected government was ousted in the 1997 Republic of the Congo Civil War, and President Denis Sassou Nguesso, who first came to power in 1979, has ruled for almost 4 decades.

The Republic of the Congo is a member of the African Union, the United Nations, La Francophonie, the Economic Community of Central African States, and the Non-Aligned Movement. It has become the fourth-largest oil producer in the Gulf of Guinea, providing the country with a degree of prosperity despite political and economic instability in some areas and unequal distribution of oil revenue nationwide. Congo's economy is heavily dependent on the oil sector,[11] and economic growth has slowed considerably since the post-2015 drop in oil prices. With a population of 5.2 million, 88.5% of the country practices Christianity.