Republic of Ireland

Ireland (Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] (listen)), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann),[a] is a country in north-western Europe consisting of 26 of the 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, on the eastern side of the island. Around 2.1 million of the country's population of 5.13 million people resides in the Greater Dublin Area.[10] The sovereign state shares its only land border with Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom. It is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, and the Irish Sea to the east. It is a unitary, parliamentary republic.[11] The legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann; an upper house, Seanad Éireann; and an elected President (Uachtarán) who serves as the largely ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach (Prime Minister, literally 'Chief', a title not used in English), who is elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the Taoiseach in turn appoints other government ministers.

Ireland[a]
Éire (Irish)
Anthem: 
Amhrán na bhFiann
"The Soldiers' Song"
Location of Ireland (dark green)

 in Europe (green & dark grey)
 in the European Union (green)

Capital
and largest city
Dublin
53°20.65′N 6°16.05′W
Official languages
Ethnic groups
(2016[2])
Religion
(2016[3])
Demonym(s)Irish
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
 President
Michael D. Higgins
 Taoiseach
Micheál Martin
 Tánaiste
Leo Varadkar
Donal O'Donnell
LegislatureOireachtas
Seanad
Dáil
Independence 
24 April 1916
21 January 1919
6 December 1921
6 December 1922
29 December 1937
18 April 1949
Area
 Total
70,273 km2 (27,133 sq mi) (118th)
 Water (%)
2.0%
Population
 2022 estimate
5,123,536[4] (122nd)
 2016 census
4,761,865[5]
 Density
71.3/km2 (184.7/sq mi) (113th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
 Total
$633 billion[6] (40th)
 Per capita
$124,596[6] (3rd)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
 Total
$516 billion[6] (30th)
 Per capita
$101,509[6] (2nd)
Gini (2021) 26.9[7]
low · 23rd
HDI (2021) 0.945[8]
very high · 8th
CurrencyEuro ()[c] (EUR)
Time zoneUTC (GMT)
 Summer (DST)
UTC+1 (IST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+353
ISO 3166 codeIE
Internet TLD.ie[d]
  1. ^ Article 4 of the Constitution of Ireland declares that the name of the state is Ireland; Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 declares that Republic of Ireland is "the description of the State".[9]
  2. ^ Also "the national language", as per the Section 2 of the Official Languages Act 2003.
  3. ^ Prior to 2002, Ireland used the Irish pound as its circulated currency. The euro was introduced as an accounting currency in 1999.
  4. ^ The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

The Irish Free State was created, with Dominion status, in 1922 following the Anglo-Irish Treaty. In 1937, a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and effectively became a republic, with an elected non-executive president. It was officially declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955. It joined the European Communities (EC), the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North/South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement.

One of Europe's major financial hubs is centred on Dublin. Ireland ranks among the top ten wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita,[12] although this has been partially ascribed to distortions caused by the tax inversion practices of various multinationals operating in Ireland.[13][14][15][16] From 2017, a modified gross national income (GNI*) was enacted by the Central Bank of Ireland, as the standard deviation was considered too materially distorted to accurately measure or represent the Irish economy.[17][18] After joining the EC, the country's government enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in economic growth between 1995 and 2007 now known as the Celtic Tiger period, before its subsequent reversal during the Great Recession.[19]

A developed country, Ireland's quality of life is ranked amongst the highest in the world, and the country performs well in several national performance metrics including healthcare, economic freedom and freedom of the press.[20][21] Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD. The Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since immediately prior to World War II and the country is consequently not a member of NATO,[22] although it is a member of Partnership for Peace and aspects of PESCO.


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