Right-wing populism

Right-wing populism, also called national populism and right-wing nationalism,[1][2][3] is a political ideology which combines right-wing politics and populist rhetoric and themes. The rhetoric often consists of anti-elitist sentiments, opposition to the Establishment, and speaking to the "common people". Both right-wing populism and left-wing populism object to the perceived control of liberal democracies by elites; however, populism of the left also objects to the power of large corporations and their allies, while populism of the right normally supports strong controls on immigration.[4][5]

In Europe, the term right-wing populism is used to describe groups, politicians and political parties that are generally known for their opposition to immigration,[6] especially from the Islamic world,[7] and for Euroscepticism.[8] Right-wing populism in the Western world is generally associated with ideologies such as anti-environmentalism,[9] neo-nationalism,[10][11] anti-globalization,[12] nativism,[13][14] and protectionism.[15] European right-wing populists may support expanding the welfare state, but only for the "deserving";[16] this concept has been referred to as "welfare chauvinism".[17][18][19]

From the 1990s, right-wing populist parties became established in the legislatures of various democracies. Although extreme right-wing movements in the United States (where they are normally referred to as the "radical right") have been characterized atomistically, some writers consider them to be a part of a broader, right-wing populist phenomenon.[20]

Since the Great Recession,[21][22][23] European right-wing populist movements such as the National Rally (formerly the National Front) in France, the League in Italy, the Party for Freedom and the Forum for Democracy in the Netherlands, the Finns Party, the Sweden Democrats, Danish People's Party, the Freedom Party of Austria, the UK Independence Party and the Brexit Party began to grow in popularity,[24][25] in large part due to increasing opposition to immigration from the Middle East and Africa, rising Euroscepticism and discontent with the economic policies of the European Union.[26] U.S. President Donald Trump won the 2016 United States presidential election after running on a platform that included right-wing populist themes.[27]