Roman conquest of Britain

The Roman conquest of Britain was a process that consisted of the conquest of territory located on the island of Britain by occupying Roman forces. It began in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, and was largely completed by 87 when the Stanegate was established.

Roman conquest of Britain

Roman conquest of Britain, showing the dominant local tribes/kingdoms conquered in each area
Date43–84 AD
Location
Result Roman victory
Belligerents
Roman Empire Celtic Britons
Commanders and leaders
Claudius
Aulus Plautius
Gaius Suetonius Paulinus
Titus
Gnaeus Julius Agricola
Togodumnus 
Caratacus (POW)
Boudica 
Calgacus
Casualties and losses
Boudican revolt: 30,000–40,000 killed (including 7,000 soldiers)[1] 100,000–250,000 killed[2][3]

The Roman army was generally recruited in Italia, Hispania, and Gaul. To cross the English Channel they used the newly formed Classis Britannica fleet equipped with Mediterranean war galleys,[4] which were much thicker in wood and more stable on rough waters.

The Romans under their general Aulus Plautius first forced their way inland in several battles against British tribes, including the Battle of the Medway, the Battle of the Thames, and in later years the Battle of Caer Caradoc against Caratacus and the Battle of Mona in Anglesey.[5] Following a general uprising in AD 60[6][7] in which Boudicca sacked Camulodunum,[8] Verulamium[9] and Londinium,[9][10] the Romans suppressed the rebellion in the Battle of Watling Street.[11][12] They went on eventually to push as far north as central Caledonia in the Battle of Mons Graupius.[13][14] Even after Hadrian's Wall was established as the border, tribes in Scotland and northern England repeatedly rebelled against Roman rule and forts continued to be maintained across northern Britain to protect against these attacks.[15]