Romania–Serbia relations


Romanian–Serbian relations are foreign relations between Romania and Serbia. Both countries established diplomatic relations on April 19, 1841.

Romanian-Serbian relations

Romania

Serbia

Country comparison


Romania Serbia
Coat of arms
Population 19,317,984 7,120,666
Area 238,397 km2 (92,046 sq mi) 88,361 km2 (34,116 sq mi)
Population density 84.4/km2 (218.6/sq mi) 144.46/km2 (330/sq mi)
Capital Bucharest Belgrade
Largest city Bucharest – 1,883,425 (2,315,173 Metro) Belgrade – 1,640,000 (2,000,000 Metro)
Government Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic
Current Leader President Klaus Iohannis
Prime Minister Florin Cîțu
President Aleksandar Vučić
Prime Minister Ana Brnabić
Official languages Romanian Serbian (official provincial languages: Slovak, Hungarian, Romanian, Rusyn, Croatian)
Main religions 86.45% Romanian Orthodoxy,
7.15% Protestantism,
5.41% Catholicism,
0.78% other,
0.21% Irreligion/Atheism
84.1% Eastern Orthodoxy, 6.24% Roman Catholicism, 3.62% Islam,
2% Protestantism, 5.4% other
Ethnic groups 88.92% Romanians,
6.50% Hungarians,
3.29% Romani,
1.29% other
83% Serbs, 4% Hungarians, 2% Bosniaks,
1.5% Romani, 1% Yugoslavs, 1% Slovaks, 10% other
GDP (nominal) US$261.868 billion ($13,414 per capita) US$50.061 billion ($6,781 per capita)

History


Left: Natalie, Queen consort of Serbia
Right: Maria, Queen consort of Yugoslavia

Although Serbia unofficially opened a kind of diplomatic agency in Bucharest in March 1836,[1] officially, the first Serbian diplomatic agency in Bucharest was established in February 1863, with Kosta Magazinović, as its first diplomatic agent. Reciprocally the first Romanian diplomatic agency in Belgrade was established on 12/24 March 1863 and the first diplomatic agent was Teodor Calimachi.[2]

In 1879, as a consequence of the independent state status, the diplomatic agencies from Belgrade and Bucharest became legations and the diplomatic agents, resident ministers. Thus on 14/26 April 1879 the Romanian diplomatic agency in Belgrade became legation, having Lascăr Catargiu as its first resident minister.[3] In the summer of 1879 Milan A. Petronijević became Serbia's first resident minister in Romania.[4] Later, after Romania and Serbia became kingdoms, in 1881 and 1882, their diplomatic representatives became "extraordinary envoy and plenipotentiary ministers". It was only in 1939 when the legations from Belgrade and Bucharest became embassies.

However, a gradual cut-off of international relations between Romania and Serbia (in that time Yugoslavia) happened in May 1941, after Romania recognized the independence of the German-controlled Independent State of Croatia, due to Romania being an Axis power at the time.

Embassies


Embassy of Serbia in Bucharest

Romania has an embassy in Belgrade and a consulate-general in Vršac. Serbia has an embassy in Bucharest and a consulate-general in Timișoara.

Common memberships


Both countries are full members of the South-East European Cooperation Process, of the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe, of the Central European Initiative, of the Southeast European Cooperative Initiative and of the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. Also Romania is an EU member and Serbia is an EU candidate. Both countries are strongly against 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence. Romania has strongly supported Serbia's territorial integrity.

Serbs of Romania


The Serbs of Romania are a recognized ethnic minority. According to the 2011 census, there were 18,076 Serbs in Romania (~0.1%). Serbs mostly live in western Romania, in the Romanian part of the Banat region, where they constitute an absolute majority in two communes and a relative majority in one other.

Romanians of Serbia


The Romanians of Serbia are a recognized ethnic minority. According to the 2011 census, there were 29,332 Romanians in Serbia (~0.4%), while 35,330 people declared themselves Vlachs. There are differing views among some of the Vlachs over whether or not they should be regarded as Romanians or as members of a distinctive nationality. Romanians and Vlachs of Serbia mostly live in northeastern Serbia, in the Timok Valley and in the Serbian part of the Banat region to be exact, where they constitute a minority in two municipalities and in Vojvodina. Vlachs of the Timok Valley have no schools where they practice their maternal language.

Diplomacy


See also


References


  1. Reprezentanțele diplomatice ale României, vol. I, 1859–1917, București, 1967, pp. 130–134.
  2. G.G. Florescu, "Agențiile diplomatice de la București și Belgrad (1863–1866)", în Romanoslavica XI/1965, pp. 126–131.
  3. A. A. Căpușan, Diplomați români de elită, vol. II, ediția a II-a, București, 2009, p. 13.
  4. Bogdan Catana, Relații diplomatice româno-sârbe, 1880–1913, Craiova, 2009, p. 74.

Further reading


  • Isailović, Neven G.; Krstić, Aleksandar R. (2015). "Serbian Language and Cyrillic Script as a Means of Diplomatic Literacy in South Eastern Europe in 15th and 16th Centuries". Literacy Experiences concerning Medieval and Early Modern Transylvania. Cluj-Napoca: George Bariţiu Institute of History. pp. 185–195.
  • Ivić, Pavle, ed. (1995). The History of Serbian Culture. Edgware: Porthill Publishers. ISBN 9781870732314.
  • Mitrović, Andrej (1969). Jugoslavija na Konferenciji mira 1919-1920. Beograd: Zavod za izdavanje udžbenika.
  • Mitrović, Andrej (1975). Razgraničenje Jugoslavije sa Mađarskom i Rumunijom 1919-1920: Prilog proučavanju jugoslovenske politike na Konferenciji mira u Parizu. Novi Sad: Institut za izučavanje istorije Vojvodine.
  • Pilat, Liviu (2010). "Mitropolitul Maxim Brancovici, Bogdan al III-lea şi legăturile Moldovei cu Biserica sârbă". Analele Putnei (in Romanian). 6 (1): 229–238.
  • Sorescu-Marinković, Annemarie (2010). "Serbian Language Acquisition in Communist Romania" (PDF). Balcanica. 41 (41): 7–31. doi:10.2298/BALC1041007S.
  • Stojkovski, Boris; Ivanić, Ivana; Spăriosu, Laura (2018). "Serbian-Romanian Relations in the Middle Ages until the Ottoman Conquest" (PDF). Transylvanian Review. 27 (2): 217–229.