Romeo and Juliet (Prokofiev)
Romeo and Juliet (Russian: Ромео и Джульетта, romanized: Romeo i Dzhulyetta), Op. 64, is a ballet by Sergei Prokofiev based on William Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet. First composed in 1935, it was substantially revised for its Soviet premiere in early 1940. Prokofiev reused music from the ballet in three suites for orchestra and a solo piano work.
|Romeo and Juliet|
|Based on||Romeo and Juliet|
Mahen Theatre, Brno
|Original ballet company||Ballet of the National Theatre, Brno|
|Characters||Ivo Váňa-Psota as Romeo|
Zora Šemberová as Juliet
Background and premiere
Based on a synopsis created by Adrian Piotrovsky (who first suggested the subject to Prokofiev) and Sergey Radlov, the ballet was composed by Prokofiev in September 1935 to their scenario which followed the precepts of "drambalet" (dramatised ballet, officially promoted at the Kirov Ballet to replace works based primarily on choreographic display and innovation). Following Radlov's acrimonious resignation from the Kirov in June 1934, a new agreement was signed with the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow on the understanding that Piotrovsky would remain involved.
However, the ballet's original happy ending (contrary to Shakespeare) provoked controversy among Soviet cultural officials. The ballet's production was then postponed indefinitely when the staff of the Bolshoi was overhauled at the behest of the chairman of the Committee on Arts Affairs, Platon Kerzhentsev. The ballet's failure to be produced within Soviet Russia until 1940 may also have been due to the increased fear and caution in the musical and theatrical community in the aftermath of the two notorious Pravda editorials criticising Shostakovich and other "degenerate modernists" including Piotrovsky. The conductor Yuri Fayer met with Prokofiev frequently during the writing of the music, and he strongly urged the composer to revert to the traditional ending. Fayer went on to conduct the first performance of the ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre.
Suites of the ballet music were heard in Moscow and the United States, but the full ballet premiered in the Mahen Theatre, Brno (then in Czechoslovakia, now in the Czech Republic), on 30 December 1938. This version was a single-act production with music mainly from the first two suites. Prokofiev was not able to attend the premiere due to his status of outbound restriction.
1940 Kirov production
It is better known today from the significantly revised version that was first presented at the Kirov Theatre (now Mariinsky Theatre) in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg) on 11 January 1940, with choreography by Leonid Lavrovsky and with Galina Ulanova and Konstantin Sergeyev in the leading roles. Despite the objections of Prokofiev, Lavrovsky significantly changed the score of the ballet. This production received international acclaim and was awarded the Stalin Prize.
In 1955, Mosfilm made the film version of this production with Galina Ulanova as Juliet and Yuri Zhdanov as Romeo. This film won the Best Lyrical Film and nominated as Palme d'Or in the 1955 Cannes Film Festival.
Revivals and other productions
In 1965, choreographer Sir Kenneth MacMillan's version for the Royal Ballet premiered at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden. Margot Fonteyn and Rudolf Nureyev danced the title roles. Fonteyn, considered to be near retirement, embarked upon a rejuvenated career with a partnership with Nureyev. Also in 1965, Oleg Vinogradov stages a version in Russia while serving as assistant ballet master to Pyotr Gusev.
In 1971, John Neumeier, partly inspired by John Cranko, created another version of the ballet in Frankfurt. In 1974, Neumeier's Romeo and Juliet premiered in Hamburg as his first full-length ballet with the company.
In 1977, Rudolf Nureyev created a new version of Romeo and Juliet for the London Festival Ballet, today's English National Ballet. He performed the lead role of Romeo with British ballerina Patricia Ruanne creating the role of Juliet. As a partnership, they toured the production internationally, and it continues to be a popular ballet in the ENB repertoire, with its most recent revival in 2010 staged by Patricia Ruanne and Frederic Jahn of the original 1977 cast. This production was also staged by La Scala Theater Ballet in 1980 and Paris Opera Ballet in 1984 and has been a renowned performance in the POB repertoire.
In 1979, Yuri Grigorovich created a new version for the Bolshoi, "which did away with most of the stage properties and stylized the action into an all-danced text." This was revived in 2010 and remains in the Bolshoi repertory.
In 1991, Christopher Gable directed his own production for the Northern Ballet Theatre. It was choreographed by Massimo Moricone and featured William Walker as Romeo and Jayne Regan as Juliet.
In 1996, choreographer Jean-Christophe Maillot premiered his version of Roméo et Juliette at Les Ballets de Monte Carlo. Taking formal inspiration from the episodic character of Sergei Prokofiev’s classic score, Maillot structured the action in a manner akin to cinematic narrative. Rather than focusing on themes of political-social opposition between the two feuding clans, this Romeo and Juliet highlights the dualities and ambiguities of adolescence.
In 2008, Krzysztof Pastor presented his version by the Scottish Ballet at the Edinburgh Festival Theatre. The Polish premiere of this version was by the Polish National Ballet in Warsaw, and the United States premiere was by the Joffrey Ballet in 2014.
On July 4, 2008, with the approval of the Prokofiev family and permission from the Russian State Archive, the original Prokofiev score was given its world premiere. Musicologist Simon Morrison, author of The People's Artist: Prokofiev's Soviet Years, unearthed the original materials in the Moscow archives, obtained permissions, and reconstructed the entire score. Mark Morris created the choreography for the production. The Mark Morris Dance Group premiered the work at the Fisher Center for the Performing Arts at Bard College in New York state. The production subsequently began a year-long tour to include Berkeley, Norfolk, London, New York, and Chicago.
In addition to a somewhat standard instrumentation, the ballet also requires the use of the tenor saxophone. This voice adds a unique sound to the orchestra as it is used both in solo and as part of the ensemble. Prokofiev also used the cornet, viola d'amore and mandolins in the ballet, adding an Italianate flavor to the music.
Full instrumentation is as follows:
The score is published by Muzyka and the Russian State Publisher.
|Scene||No.||English title||Russian title (Original title)||Tempo indication||Notes|
|3||The Street Awakens||Улица просыпается||Allegretto|
|4||Morning Dance||Утренний танец||Allegro|
|5||The Quarrel||Ссора||Allegro brusco|
|7||The Prince Gives His Order||Приказ герцога||Andante||a.k.a. The Duke's Command. Introduction of Montagues and Capulets in Suite No. 2|
|8||Interlude||Интерлюдия||Andante pomposo (L'istesso tempo)|
|Scene 2||9||Preparing for the Ball (Juliet and the Nurse)||Приготовление к балу (Джульетта и Кормилица)||Andante assai. Scherzando||a.k.a. At the Capulets' (Preparations for the Ball)|
|10||Juliet as a Young Girl||Джульетта-Девочка||Vivace||a.k.a. The Young Juliet|
|11||Arrival of the Guests (Minuet)||Съезд гостей (Менуэт)||Assai moderato|
|12||Masks (Romeo, Mercutio and Benvolio in Masks)||Маски (Ромео, Меркуцио и Бенволио в масках)||Andante marciale|
|13||Dance of the Knights||Танец рыцарей||Allegro pesante||The main part of Montagues and Capulets in Suite No. 2|
|14||Juliet's Variation||Вариация Джульетты||Moderato (quasi Allegretto)|
|17||Tybalt Recognizes Romeo||Тибальд узнает Ромео||Allegro|
|18||Gavotte (Departure of the Guests)||Гавот (Разъезд гостей)||Allegro||Gavotte (movement III) from "Classical" Symphony, Op. 25|
|19||Balcony Scene||Сцена у балкона||Larghetto|
|20||Romeo's Variation||Вариация Ромео||Allegretto amoroso|
|21||Love Dance||Любовный танец||Andante|
|Scene 3||22||Folk Dance||Народный танец||Allegro giocoso|
|23||Romeo and Mercutio||Ромео и Меркуцио||Andante tenero|
|24||Dance of the Five Couples||Танец пяти пар||Vivo||Dance in Suite No. 2|
|25||Dance with Mandolins||Танец с мандолинами||Vivace|
|26||The Nurse||Кормилица||Adagio scherzoso|
|27||The Nurse Gives Romeo the Note from Juliet||Кормилица передает Ромео записку от Джульетты||Vivace||a.k.a. The Nurse and Romeo|
|Scene 4||28||Romeo at Friar Laurence's||Ромео у патера Лоренцо||Andante espressivo|
|29||Juliet at Friar Laurence's||Джульетта у патера Лоренцо||Lento|
|Scene 5||30||The People Continue to Make Merry||Народное веселье продолжается||Vivo||a.k.a. Public Merrymaking|
|31||The Folk Dance Again||Снова народный танец||Allegro giocoso||a.k.a. Further Public Festivities (Снова народный праздник)|
|32||Tybalt Meets Mercutio||Встреча Тибальда с Меркуцио||Moderato||a.k.a. Meeting of Tybalt and Mercutio|
|33||Tybalt and Mercutio Fight||Тибальд бьётся с Меркуцио||Precipitato||a.k.a. The Duel|
|34||Death of Mercutio||Меркуцио умирает||Moderato|
|35||Romeo Decides to Avenge Mercutio's Death||Ромео решает мстить за смерть Меркуцио||Andante. Animato||a.k.a. Death of Tybalt|
|36||Finale of Act II||Финал второго действия||Adagio dramatico|
|37||Introduction||Вступление||Andante||reprise of No. 7|
|Scene 6||38||Romeo and Juliet (Juliet's bedroom)||Ромео и Джульетта (Спальня Джульетты)||Lento|
|39||Farewell before Parting||Прощание перед разлукой||Andante||a.k.a. Romeo Bids Juliet Farewell, or The Last Farewell|
|40||The Nurse||Кормилица||Andante assai|
|41||Juliet Refuses to Marry Paris||Джульетта отказывается выйти за Париса||Vivace|
|42||Juliet Alone||Джульетта одна||Adagio|
|Scene 7||44||At Friar Laurence's||У Лоренцо||Andante||a.k.a. At Friar Laurence's Cell|
|Scene 8||46||Again in Juliet's Bedroom||Снова у Джульетты||Moderato tranquillo|
|47||Juliet Alone||Джульетта одна||Andante|
|48||Morning Serenade||Утренняя серенада||Andante giocoso||a.k.a. Aubade|
|49||Dance of the Girls with Lilies||Танец девушек с лилиями||Andante con eleganza|
|50||At Juliet's Bedside||У постели Джульетты||Andante assai|
|Act 4: Epilogue|
|Scene 9||51||Juliet's Funeral||Похороны Джульетты||Adagio funebre||Romeo at the Tomb of Juliet in Suite No. 2|
|52||Death of Juliet||Смерть Джульетты||Adagio (meno mosso del tempo precendente)|
Orchestral suites taken from the work
Suite No. 1 from Romeo and Juliet, Op. 64bis
- Folk Dance
- Scene (the Street Awakens)
- Minuet (the Arrival of the Guests)
- Romeo and Juliet (Balcony Scene and Love Dance)
- Death of Tybalt (Containing parts from No. 33, 6, 35 & 36 from the complete score)
Suite No. 2 from Romeo and Juliet, Op. 64ter
- Montagues and Capulets (The Prince Gives His Order and Dance of the Knights)
- Juliet as a Young Girl
- Friar Laurence (Romeo at Friar Laurence's)
- Dance (Dance of the Five Couples)
- Romeo and Juliet Before Parting
- Dance of the Girls with Lilies
- Romeo at Juliet's Grave (Juliet's Funeral)
Suite No. 3 from Romeo and Juliet, Op. 101
- Romeo at the Fountain (Introduction & Romeo)
- Morning Dance
- Juliet (Juliet's Variation & Juliet at Friar Laurence's)
- The Nurse (Preparing for the Ball & The Nurse)
- Aubade (Morning serenade)
- The Death of Juliet
Ten Pieces for Piano, Op. 75
- Folk Dance
- Scene: The Street Awakens
- Minuet: Arrival of the Guests
- Juliet as a Young Girl
- Montagues and Capulets
- Friar Laurence
- Dance of the Girls with Lilies
- Romeo and Juliet before Parting
Sergei Prokofiev himself made the first recording of music from the ballet, with the Moscow Philharmonic Orchestra in 1938. Since then, there have been recordings of the full score, as well as various excerpts such as the orchestral suites the composer prepared. Leopold Stokowski conducted the NBC Symphony Orchestra in a rare stereo recording in 1954. Gennadi Rozhdestvensky and the Symphony Orchestra of the Bolshoi Theatre recorded the full score in 1959. Michael Tilson Thomas conducted the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra in 1995, in selections from the score, both for RCA Victor. Andre Previn with the London Symphony Orchestra and Lorin Maazel with the Cleveland Orchestra both made recordings of the complete score in 1973. Georg Solti conducted the Chicago Symphony Orchestra in a recording coupled with the Classical Symphony. Valery Gergiev made two recordings with Kirov Orchestra in 2001 and London Symphony Orchestra in 2011.
- Morrison 2008, p. 32.
- Ezrahi 2012, p. 43.
- Morrison 2008, pp. 32–33.
- Morrison 2008, pp. 36–37.
- Morrison 2008, p. 37.
- Clark 1995, p. 291.
- Morrison 2007.
- Macauley 2014.
- "Romeo and Juliet – The Australian Ballet". Dance Magazine. December 2011.
- S. Prokofiev: Op. 64 Romeo and Juliet, Ballet in Four Acts, Nine Scenes. Moscow: Muzyka, 1976. (С. Прокофьев: Соч. 64 Ромео и Джульетта, Балет в четырех действиях, девяти картинах. Москва: Издательство «Музыка», 1976 г.)
- Redepenning 2001.
- Clark, Katerina (1995). Petersburg: Crucible of Cultural Revolution. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674663367.
- Ezrahi, Christina (2012). Swans of the Kremlin: Ballet and Power in Soviet Russia. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 9780822962144.
- Macauley, Alistair (4 June 2014). "On Screen, No Scars or Scandals for Bolshoi". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
- Morrison, Simon (2007). Romeo and Juliet's Happy Ending (PDF). International Symposium of Russian Ballet. Harriman Institute.
- Morrison, Simon (2008). The People's Artist: Prokofiev's Soviet Years. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195181678.001.0001. ISBN 9780195181678 – via Oxford Scholarship Online.
- Redepenning, Dorothea (2001). "Prokofiev, Sergey (Sergeyevich)". Grove Music Online (8th ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.22402.