Rotterdam

Rotterdam (/ˈrɒtərdæm/ ROT-ər-dam, UK also /ˌrɒtərˈdæm/ ROT-ər-DAM,[8][9] Dutch: [ˌrɔtərˈdɑm] (listen), lit. The Dam on the River Rotte) is the second largest city and municipality in the Netherlands. It is in the province of South Holland, part of the North Sea mouth of the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta, via the "New Meuse" inland shipping channel, dug to connect to the Meuse first, but now to the Rhine instead.

Rotterdam
Rotterdam at dusk
City Hall of Rotterdam
Schieland House
Historic town centre of Delfshaven
Nickname(s): 
Rotown, Roffa, Rotjeknor, Nultien, 010
Motto: 
Sterker door strijd (Stronger through struggle)
Location in South Holland
Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Coordinates: 51°55′N 4°30′E
CountryNetherlands
ProvinceSouth Holland
Districts
Government
  BodyMunicipal council
  MayorAhmed Aboutaleb (PvdA)
  Aldermen
List
  • Robert Simons (LR)
  • Ronald Buijt (LR)
  • Maarten Struijvenberg (LR)
  • Vincent Karremans (VVD)
  • Tim Versnel (VVD)
  • Chantal Zeegers (D66)
  • Said Kasmi (D66)
  • Faouzi Achbar (DENK)
  • Enes Yigit (DENK)
Area
  Municipality324.14 km2 (125.15 sq mi)
  Land217.55 km2 (84.00 sq mi)
  Water106.59 km2 (41.15 sq mi)
  Randstad3,043 km2 (1,175 sq mi)
Elevation0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (1 January 2020)[3][5][6]
  Municipality651,157
  Density2,995/km2 (7,760/sq mi)
  Urban
1,273,385
  Metro
2,390,101 [lower-alpha 1]
  Randstad
8,366,078
DemonymRotterdammer
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postcode
3000–3099
Area code010
Websiterotterdam.nl (in Dutch)
Click on the map for a fullscreen view

Rotterdam's history goes back to 1270, when a dam was constructed in the Rotte. In 1340, Rotterdam was granted city rights by William IV, Count of Holland. The Rotterdam–The Hague metropolitan area, with a population of approximately 2.7 million, is the 10th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country.

A major logistic and economic centre, Rotterdam is Europe's largest seaport. In 2020, it had a population of 651,446[10] and is home to over 180 nationalities. Rotterdam is known for its university, riverside setting, lively cultural life, maritime heritage and modern architecture. The near-complete destruction of the city centre in the World War II Rotterdam Blitz has resulted in a varied architectural landscape, including skyscrapers designed by architects such as Rem Koolhaas, Piet Blom and Ben van Berkel.[11][12]

The Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt give waterway access into the heart of Western Europe, including the highly industrialized Ruhr. The extensive distribution system including rail, roads, and waterways have earned Rotterdam the nicknames "Gateway to Europe" and "Gateway to the World".[13][14][15]


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