Rotterdam

Rotterdam (/ˈrɒtərdæm/, UK also /ˌrɒtərˈdæm/,[5][6] Dutch: [ˌrɔtərˈdɑm] (listen)) is the second largest city and municipality in the Netherlands. It is in the province of South Holland, at the mouth of the Nieuwe Maas channel leading into the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta at the North Sea. Its history goes back to 1270, when a dam was constructed in the Rotte. In 1340, Rotterdam was granted city rights by the Count of Holland.[7] The Rotterdam–The Hague metropolitan area, with a population of approximately 2.7 million, is the 10th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country.

Rotterdam
From top down, left to right: Rotterdam at dusk,
Lawrence Church, The Destroyed City sculpture, Euromast,
Cube houses, De Kuip; stadium of Feyenoord,
City Hall of Rotterdam, Schieland House, Hotel New York,
Historic town centre of Delfshaven, Port of Rotterdam
Nickname(s): 
Rotown, Roffa, Rotjeknor, Nultien, 010
Motto(s): 
Sterker door strijd (Stronger through struggle)
Location in South Holland
Rotterdam
Location in South Holland
Rotterdam
Rotterdam (Netherlands)
Rotterdam
Rotterdam (Europe)
Coordinates: 51°55′N 4°30′E
CountryNetherlands
ProvinceSouth Holland
Districts
Government
  BodyMunicipal council
  MayorAhmed Aboutaleb (PvdA)
  Aldermen
List
  • Judith Bokhove
  • Arno Bonte
  • Arjan van Gils
  • Michiel Grauss
  • Said Kasmi
  • Barbara Kathmann
  • Bas Kurvers
  • Sven de Langen
  • Richard Moti
  • Bert Wijbenga
Area
  Municipality324.14 km2 (125.15 sq mi)
  Land217.55 km2 (84.00 sq mi)
  Water106.59 km2 (41.15 sq mi)
  Randstad3,043 km2 (1,175 sq mi)
Elevation0 m (0 ft)
Population
  Municipality651,157
  Urban
1,273,385
  Metro
2,390,101
  Randstad
8,366,078
Demonym(s)Rotterdammer
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postcode
3000–3099
Area code010
Websitewww.rotterdam.nl

A major logistic and economic centre, Rotterdam is Europe's largest seaport. In 2020, it had a population of 651,446[8] and is home to over 180 nationalities. Rotterdam is known for its university, riverside setting, lively cultural life, maritime heritage and modern architecture. The near-complete destruction of the city centre in the World War II Rotterdam Blitz has resulted in a varied architectural landscape, including skyscrapers designed by architects such as Rem Koolhaas, Piet Blom and Ben van Berkel.[9][10]

The Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt give waterway access into the heart of Western Europe, including the highly industrialized Ruhr. The extensive distribution system including rail, roads, and waterways have earned Rotterdam the nicknames "Gateway to Europe" and "Gateway to the World".[11][12][13]