Ryazan (Russian: Рязань, IPA: [rʲɪˈzanʲ] (listen)) is the largest city and administrative center of Ryazan Oblast, Russia. The city is located on right bank of the Oka River in Central Russia, 196 kilometers (122 mi) southeast of Moscow. Ryazan is among the most ancient cities of Russia.
|Federal subject||Ryazan Oblast|
|• Body||City Duma|
|• City manager||Oleg Bulekov|
|• Total||224.163 km2 (86.550 sq mi)|
|Elevation||130 m (430 ft)|
|• Estimate||538,962 (+2.7%)|
|• Rank||31st in 2010|
|• Density||2,300/km2 (6,100/sq mi)|
|• Subordinated to||city of oblast significance of Ryazan|
|• Capital of||Ryazan Oblast, Ryazansky District|
|• Urban okrug||Ryazan Urban Okrug|
|• Capital of||Ryazan Urban Okrug, Ryazansky Municipal District|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (MSK )|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 4912|
As of the 2010 Census, Ryazan had a population of 524,927, an increase from 521,560 in 2002, making it the 33rd most populated city in Russia, and the 4th most populated in Central Russia after Moscow, Voronezh, and Yaroslavl.
An older city, now named Staraya Ryazan (Russian: Старая Рязань, lit. 'Old Ryazan'), was located near modern-day Ryazan during the late middle ages, and served as capital of the Principality of Ryazan. During the Mongol invasion of Rus, the one was one of the first in Russia to be besieged and completely razed. The capital was subsequently moved to Peryslavl-Ryazansky (Russian: Переяславль-Рязанский), and renamed into Ryazan by the order of Catherine the Great in 1778 later.
The city is known for the Ryazan kremlin, a historic museum; the Pozhalostin Ryazan Regional and State Art Museum, one of the oldest art museums in Russia; the Memorial Museum-Estate of Academician I.P. Pavlov; and the Ryazan Museum of Long-Range Aviation.
It is argued that the Ryazan kremlin was founded in 800, by Slavic settlers, as a part of their drive into territory previously populated by Volga Finnic peoples. Initially, it was built of wood, gradually replaced by masonry. The oldest preserved part of the Kremlin dates back to the 12th century.
However, the first written mention of the city, under the name of Pereslavl, dates to 1095. At that time, the city was part of the independent Principality of Ryazan, which had existed since 1078 and which was centered on the old city of Ryazan. The first ruler of Ryazan was supposedly Yaroslav Sviatoslavich, Prince of Ryazan and Murom (cities of Kievan Rus').
The lands of Ryazan, situated on the border of forest and steppe, suffered numerous invasions from the south as well as from the north, carried out by a variety of military forces including Cumans, but particularly the Principality was in a conflict with Vladimir-Suzdal. By the end of the 12th century, the capital of Duchy was burnt several times by the armies of Suzdal. Ryazan was the first Russian city to be sacked by the Mongol horde of Batu Khan. On December 21, 1237, it was thoroughly devastated and never fully recovered. As result of the sack, the seat of the principality was moved about 55 kilometers (34 mi) to the town of Pereslavl-Ryazansky, which subsequently took the name of the destroyed capital. The site of the old capital now carries the name of Staraya Ryazan (Old Ryazan), close to Spassk-Ryazansky.
In 1380, during the Battle of Kulikovo, the Grand Prince of Ryazan Oleg and his men came under a coalition of Mamai, a strongman of the Tatar Golden Horde, and the Grand Duke of Lithuania, against the armies under the command of the Grand Prince of Vladimir, Dmitry Donskoy.
Late in the 13th century, the Princes of Ryazan moved their capital to Pereslavl, which is known as Ryazan from the 16th century (officially renamed in 1778). The principality was finally incorporated into that of Moscow in 1521.
Ryazan was bombed by Germany in World War II.
Immediately after the war, rapid development of the city began. Ryazan became a major industrial, scientific, and military center of the European part of Russia. Massive factories were constructed in the city, occupying the entire urban areas. Such establishments included the largest refinery in Europe, the Soviet Union's only producer of potato-harvesting equipment - Ryazselmash Plant, accounting machines, a machine-tool plant, heavy forging equipment, foundry Centrolit, chemical fiber company, instrument factory and others. Leading areas of industry are heavy and non-ferrous metallurgy, oil refining and machine-tool industry, mechanical engineering and food industries. More than half of the plants produce for export.
The military potential of the city has also developed: Ryazan became the main training center of the Airborne Forces of the Soviet Union - a city surrounded by numerous training centers and military training-grounds. Several positioned MANPADS protect the urban sky. Besides the Airborne School, Ryazan hosts the Automobile School and Institute of Communications, a regiment of railway troops, airbase strategic bombers, and a training center in Diaghilev.
Ryazan developed particularly rapidly while Nadezhda Nikolaevna Chumakova served as Chair of the Council of People's Deputies of Ryazan and Ryazan mayor. Under Chumakova, the city's population increased more than seven times: from 72 to 520 thousand people. Chumakova oversaw the construction of social and cultural amenities, more than 20 urban areas, and hundreds of kilometers of trolleybus, tram and bus routes. Landscaping became a fundamental strategy for the development of the city at that time. A "green" ring of forests, parks, and garden associations surrounded Ryazan, with large parks located in each area of the city, and compositions of flowers and vertical gardening became customary, not only for the main streets, but also for industrial zones and factory buildings. Ryazan repeatedly won recognition among the cities of the Soviet Union for its landscaping. During her 26 years in office, Nadezhda Chumakova often accepted awards of the Red Banner of the USSR on behalf of Ryazan.
In September 1999, Ryazan became one of the cities involved in the Russian apartment bombings episode, though it did not actually experience a successful bomb attack.
Ryazan's buildings are too diverse to be characterised by any particular architectural style. Many noted Russian architects worked in Ryazan, including Kazakov, who worked and died in this city, and built the house of Politech University.
Ryazan's churches were built between the 15th and 19th centuries. In 1900s style moderne was popular. Soviet Constructivism was an important step in Ryazan architecture.
Civil society plays an extensive role in city life Ryazan has several public oversight organizations. The Committee to Protect The Ryazan Kremlin, founded in 2006 to oppose the transfer of the site's ownership to the Archdiocese, now operates all architectural and cultural supervision in the city. Environmental organizations in Ryazan adopted a program to clean illegal dumping sites, whose presence is flagged by citizens themselves, created an arboretum, and helped to clean water areas.
Ryazan Cycling is building bike paths in the central part of the city. This activity attracted the attention of the authorities, who promise to build several similar paths passing through the whole territory of Ryazan.
Public hearings, which at construction sites in the city is required by law, are well attended.
Ryazan is the seat of Diocese of Ryazan and Kasimov, an eparchy of the Russian Orthodox Church. Assumption Cathedral of the Ryazan Kremlin is one of the most important cathedrals in the city. Metropolia is the holder of the majority of religious temples in the city and the sole holder of the monasteries.
Believers is the cathedral church of All Who Sorrow Church. In addition to them, the city is also located confessional institution Catholics, Lutherans, Baptists, autonomous church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Pentecostals, Seventh-day Adventists (their church is featured on a 2001 Russian stamp), Mormons, Charismatics and Muhtasibat Muslims for whom built the Islamic Cultural Center.
Ryazan is one of the leading tourist destinations in Central Russia. The monuments of history and culture attract many tourists. The Ryazan Kremle is a symbol and the main landmark in Ryazan. It is an ensemble of the old main of Ryazan fortress (11 cen.), churches (15 - 20 cen.) and the Palace of Oleg. Sobornaia Bell is one of the highest bells of the Orthodox Church.
Ryazan State Museum of Art is one of the largest museums of Russian and European arts. It has paintings of F. Guardi, A. van Ostade, V. V. Kandinsky and others.
- Ignatiev house
- The Ryazan Kremlin
- The Ryazan Kremlin court.
- Ryazan Kremlin Palace
Ryazan has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb). The highest temperature recorded is 39.5 °C (103.1 °F) in August 2010 while the lowest temperature recorded is −40.9 °C (−41.6 °F) in January 1940.
|Climate data for Ryazan|
|Record high °C (°F)||6.3
|Average high °C (°F)||−4.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−7.5
|Average low °C (°F)||−10.5
|Record low °C (°F)||−40.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||42
|Average rainy days||4||4||5||11||13||15||14||13||14||15||11||5||124|
|Average snowy days||23||20||13||4||1||0||0||0||0.4||4||14||22||101|
|Average relative humidity (%)||85||82||76||67||61||70||72||74||77||82||86||85||76|
The Ryazan city governing body is divided among City's legislature (Ryazan City Duma), City administration and district's courts.
Executive powers of the city are administered by a city governour, his advisers and deputies. Formal control over activities of authorities is exercised by the Public Chamber of the city of Ryazan, who work with youth involved in the headquarters of youth activists.
Ryazan is also a system of community councils areas which are deliberative bodies coordinating the work of services housing and communal services and the Department of Public Works on urban areas.
The city also hosts different regional governing bodies: Ryazan Oblast Duma (regional parliament), Government and the Governor of the Ryazan Oblast. In two urban and one suburban residence being received at the highest level.
Administrative and municipal status
Ryazan is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Ryazansky District, even though it is not a part of it. As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of regional significance of Ryazan—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the city is incorporated as Ryazan Urban Circuit.
The city of Ryazan is divided into four administrative districts:
- Moskovsky (North-Eastern)
- Sovetsky (Including a separate Solotcha district)
An economically important educational institution in the city is the Ryazan State Radio Engineering University. The Higher Paratrooper Command Academy used to be Russia's only military school training officers for the airborne forces, giving Ryazan the reputation as the "paratrooper capital". However, in 2010 the institution discontinued enrollment to its paratrooper program, and now focuses on training professional sergeants for the armed forces. The Gorky Library serves Ryazan as well as Ryazan Oblast. It is the largest library in the region. Located In the city center is Ryazan only medical University Ryazan State Medical University.
Ryazan is one of the leading hubs for high-tech innovation and development in Russia. Thousands of students learn mathematics and engineering at Ryazan State University and Ryazan State Radio Engineering University. It is home to iAGE , whose solutions and technologies help companies automate their digital marketing data-driven campaigns. Software engineering company EPAM Systems has an office in Ryazan . In 2012 Russian search giant Yandex launched the 40MW data center in Sasovo; it's expected to accommodate 100,000 servers by 2019. In addition, one of the company operates in Ryazan is BiznesInterSoft, which develops latest-generation technologies - NoSQL-databases.
Ryazan, like many cities in Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union, saw a spike in crime during the 1990s. Slonovskaya organized criminal group (Russian: Слоновская ОПГ), one of the largest gangs in Russia, operated in the city where they managed to monopolize the downtown area and the criminal underworld in Ryazan. In 1991, the gang became heavily involved with racketeering, newly-privatized industries, motor vehicle sales, real estate, contract killings, participated in gang violence, kidnappings and committed armed attacks on rivals. By 1995, Slonovskii managed to briefly seize control over all the businesses in Ryazan, but by 1996 law enforcement started to apprehend suspects linked to the gang. By 2000 the gang was almost completely eliminated.
At the same time evidence was gathered for the court hearing of former mayor and chairman of the city duma, Fyodor Provotorov, the largest trial in Russia at the time. Provotorova held powerful positions in the city for 8 years, and was associated with the activities of the Slonov's criminal organization, according to authorities.
In 1999 the Ryazan came to a light of Russia's public attention when a group of alleged plain-clothes FSS officers attempted to blow up a building on the East side of the city, the even known as Ryazan incident.
Today, the crime rate in Ryazan is one of the lowest among the cities of the Central Federal District according to the Russian Interior Ministry. In the first six-months of 2012, 579.6 crimes were reported per hundred-thousand people, almost half the Central Federal District average of 839 reported crimes per hundred-thousand people. The low crime rate in Ryazan is often attributed to increased police patrols, the high number of military schools in the city, and voluntary militias which have headquarters located in all city districts.\
Major industry enterprises in the city include military communication electronics production plant and oil refinery (subsidiary of Rosneft).
Ryazan has a reputation of being one of Russia's electronics hubs. Around a quarter of the city's population is affected by the electronics industry. The most notable company in this sector is Plazma (company), which produces plasma screens for products including tanks and locomotives. In 1994, the company created a 50-50 research and development joint-venture with the South Korean company Orion PDP. Plazma's expertise helped Orion PDP become one of the world's leading manufacturers of plasma television panels. In addition to plasma technology, Plazma produces LCD screens, industrial gas lasers and medical lasers. The company exports its products to foreign countries, including to the United States, China and Israel.
Another key industry in the city is oil refining. The Ryazan Oil Refinery, owned by Rosneft, is one of the city's largest employers. The plant can refine 17 million metric tons of oil per year.
The economy of Ryazan benefits from a large number of skilled engineers graduating from the State Radioengineering University, and from the city's close proximity to Moscow, which can be reached in 90 minutes by car.
- Ryazan local mall.
- Railroad oil tanks.
- A LiAZ-5280 trolleybus in Ryazan
- LiAZ-6212 articulated bus
- Alexander Alexandrov (1883–1946), composer
- Erast Garin (1902–1980), comic actor
- Alexander Genis (born 1953), writer, broadcaster and cultural critic
- Yuri Kholopov (1932–2003), musicologist, music theorist, doctor of arts, and professor of the Moscow Conservatoire
- Maximilian Kravkov (1887–1937), writer
- Andrei Mironov (born 1975), painter
- Konstantin Paustovsky (1892–1968), writer
- Alexander Pirogov (1899–1964), bass opera singer
- Yakov Polonsky (1819–1898), writer
- Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin (1826–1889), satirist
- Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn (1918–2008), writer
- Sergei Yesenin (1895–1925), poet
- Semen Zhivago (1807–1863), historical painter
- Anton Belov (born 1986), professional ice hockey defenceman
- Olga Kaliturina (born 1976), high jumper
- Maria Kalmykova (born 1978), basketball player
- Yuri Kuleshov (born 1981), professional football defensive midfielder
- Irina Meleshina (born 1982), long jumper
- Ivan Nifontov (born 1987), judoka
- Sergei Panov (born 1970), basketball player
- Kirill Sosunov (born 1975), long jumper
- Alexandra Trusova (born 2004), figure skater
Engineering and science
- Andrey Arkhangelsky (1879–1940), geologist
- Vladimir Gulevich (1867–1933), biochemist
- Aleksei Kozhevnikov (1836–1902), neurologist and psychiatrist
- Nikolai Kravkov (1865–1924), pharmacologist
- Sergey P. Kravkov (1873–1938), soil scientist
- Sergey V. Kravkov (1893–1951), psychologist and psychophysiologist
- Andrey Markov (1856–1922), mathematician
- Ivan Michurin (1855–1935), biologist
- Sergey Nepobedimy (1921–2014), designer of rocket weaponry
- Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936), physiologist
- Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857–1935), engineer
Twin towns - sister cities
Ryazan is twinned with:
- Law #128-OZ
- БД ПМО Рязанской области. Город Рязань
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
- "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
- Law #75-OZ
- Law #74-OZ
- "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
- Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
- "5. ПЕРЕЯСЛАВЛЬ РЯЗАНСКИЙ (История города)". pravgymn62.ru. Retrieved March 3, 2021.
- "Ryazan city, Russia travel guide". russiatrek.org. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
- Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification" (PDF). Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606.
- "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Ryazan" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved December 8, 2019.
- "Структура администрации". Администрация города Рязани. Retrieved June 12, 2021.
- "Структура. Рязанская городская Дума официальный сайт". www.rgdrzn.ru. Retrieved June 12, 2021.
- Anatoly Medetsky (June 26, 2011). "Ryazan: Plasma Screens and Pavlov's Dogs". The Moscow Times.
- "Oleg Kovalyov at Yandex's data center" (in Russian). Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- "Foiled Attack or Failed Exercise? A Look at Ryazan 1999 | Wilson Center". www.wilsoncenter.org. Retrieved June 12, 2021.
- Brown, Keith. "Vladimir Putin's lying game". The Conversation. Retrieved June 13, 2021.
- Train Station in Ryazan (in Russian) Archived March 23, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- "Города-партнёры/Cities-partners". rgdrzn.ru (in Russian). Ryazan. Retrieved February 1, 2020.
- Рязанская областная Дума. Закон №128-ОЗ от 12 сентября 2007 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Рязанской области», в ред. Закона №56-ОЗ от 27 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 7 Закона Рязанской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Рязанской области"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Рязанские ведомости", №273, 20 сентября 2007 г. (Ryazan Oblast Duma. Law #128-OZ of September 12, 2007 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Ryazan Oblast, as amended by the Law #56-OZ of July 27, 2012 On Amending Article 7 of the Law of Ryazan Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Ryazan Oblast". Effective as of the day ten days after the official publication.).
- Рязанская областная Дума. Закон №75-ОЗ от 7 октября 2004 г. «О наделении муниципального образования — город Рязань статусом городского округа и установлении его границ», в ред. Закона №77-ОЗ от 9 июля 2008 г «Об утверждении границы муниципального образования — городской округ город Рязань». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Рязанские ведомости", №212–213, 14 октября 2004 г. (Ryazan Oblast Duma. Law #75-OZ of October 7, 2004 On Granting Urban Okrug Status to the Municipal Formation of the City of Ryazan and on Establishing Its Borders, as amended by the Law #77-OZ of July 9, 2008 On Establishing the Border of the Municipal Formation—the Urban Okrug of the City of Ryazan. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
- Рязанская областная Дума. Закон №74-ОЗ от 7 октября 2004 г. «О наделении муниципального образования — Рязанский район статусом муниципального района, об установлении его границ и границ муниципальных образований, входящих в его состав», в ред. Закона №45-ОЗ от 9 апреля 2008 г «Об утверждении границы муниципального образования — Рязанский муниципальный район и границ муниципальных образований, входящих в его состав». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Рязанские ведомости", №212–213 (без приложений), 14 октября 2004 г. (Ryazan Oblast Duma. Law #74-OZ of October 7, 2004 On Granting the Municipal Formation of Ryazansky District the Status of a Municipal District, on Establishing Its Borders and the Borders of the Municipal Formations It Comprises, as amended by the Law #45-OZ of April 9, 2008 On Establishing the Border of the Municipal Formation of Ryazansky Munipal Districts and the Borders of the Municipal Formations It Comprises. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).