Saint symbolism

Symbolism of Christian saints has been used from the very beginnings of the religion.[1] Each saint is said to have led an exemplary life and symbols have been used to tell these stories throughout the history of the Church.[2] A number of Christian saints are traditionally represented by a symbol or iconic motif associated with their life, termed an attribute or emblem, in order to identify them. The study of these forms part of iconography in art history.[3] They were particularly used so that the illiterate could recognize a scene, and to give each of the Saints something of a personality in art.[2] They are often carried in the hand by the Saint.

Dutch Book of Prayers from the mid-fifteenth century. Group of five saints. From left to right, Saint Joseph, Saint James the Great, Saint Eligius, Saint Hermes, and Saint Ghislain, with their emblems.

Attributes often vary with either time or geography, especially between Eastern Christianity and the West. Orthodox images more often contained inscriptions with the names of saints, so the Eastern repertoire of attributes is generally smaller than the Western. Many of the most prominent saints, like Saint Peter and Saint John the Evangelist can also be recognised by a distinctive facial type. Some attributes are general, such as the martyr's palm.[4] The use of a symbol in a work of art depicting a Saint reminds people who is being shown and of their story. The following is a list of some of these attributes.

Four Evangelists

The symbols of the four Evangelists are here depicted in the Book of Kells. The winged man, lion, eagle and bull symbolize, clockwise from top left, Matthew, Mark, John, and Luke.
Saint Symbol[5]
Matthew winged man or angel
Mark winged lion
Luke winged bull
John eagle

The Apostles

Saint Symbol
Andrew St. Andrew's cross[a], discalced, with fish or a rope
Bartholomew the Apostle knife, bears his own skin in hand][a]
James, son of Zebedee pilgrim's staff, scallop shell, key, sword, pilgrim's hat, astride a white charger, Cross of Saint James[a]
James, son of Alphaeus/James the Just square rule, halberd, club, saw[a]
John evangelistary, a serpent in a chalice, cauldron, eagle[a]
Jude sword, square rule, club, ship[a]
Judas Iscariot thirty pieces of silver[a]
Matthew angel, evangelistary[a]
Peter Keys of Heaven, boat, fish, rooster, pallium, papal vestments; crucified head downwards on an inverted cross, holding a book or scroll. Iconographically, he is mostly depicted with a bushy beard and hair.[a]
Philip column; holding a basket of loaves and a Tau Cross[a]
Simon boat; cross and saw; fish (or two fishes); lance; being sawn in two longitudinally; oar[a]
Thomas placing his finger in the side of Christ, axe, spear, carpentry tools [a]

Mary, mother of Jesus

Mary is often portrayed wearing blue. Her attributes include amongst many others a mantle (often in blue or very large to cover the faithful), crown of 12 stars, serpent, sun and/or moon, heart pierced by sword, Madonna lily, roses, and rosary beads.[6]

Saint Symbol
Our Lady of Good CounselMary with the Infant Jesus, in their touching halo appear the words SS. Mater Boni consilii, ora pro nobis Jesum filium tuum
Our Lady of SorrowsMary in mournful state, tears, bleeding heart pierced by seven swords [b]
Queen of HeavenMary with a crown of stars, flowers[a]

Saints listed by name


Saint Symbol
Acathius of Melitenecrown of thorns[a]
Agatha of Sicilytongs or shears, veil, bells, two breasts on a plate[a]
Alfege of Canterburyaxe[a]
Alfred the Greatcodex, crown, orb/scepter[a]
Ambrosebees, beehive, dove, ox, pen[a]
Anne, grandmother of Jesusdoor, book[a], with the Virgin Mary reading, red robe and green mantle[8]
Anthony the Greatmonk's habit, bell, pig, T-shaped cross[a]
Anthony of PaduaChrist Child, bread, book, white lily[a]
Athanasius of Alexandriabishop arguing with a pagan, bishop holding an open book, bishop standing over a defeated heretic[a]
Augustine of Hippodove, child, shell, pen, book[a], heart with a flame


Saint Symbol
Barbaratower (often with three windows), chalice, ciborium, cannon[a]
Barnabaspilgrim's staff, olive branch[a]
Benedictbroken cup, raven, bell, crosier, bush[a]
Benno of Meissenfish with keys in its mouth, book[a]
Bernard of Clairvauxpen, bees, instruments of the Passion[a]
Bernardino of Sienatablet or sun inscribed with IHS, three mitres[a]
Blaisewax, two crossed and lit candles, iron comb[a]
Bonaventurecommunion, ciborium, cardinal's hat[a]
Bonifaceoak, axe, book, fox, scourge, fountain, raven, sword[a]
Brendan the Navigatorwhale; priest celebrating Mass on board a ship while fish gather to listen; one of a group of monks in a small boat [a]
Bridget of Swedenbook, pilgrim's staff, habit of the Bridgettines [a]
Brigid of Kildarecow, crosier, Brigid's cross[a]


Saint Symbol
Casimir of Poland and Lithuaniaroyal attire of crown and red robe lined with ermine, white lily, cross, rosary; sometimes two right hands[a]
Catherine of Alexandriabreaking wheel, crown, sword, book[a]
Catherine of Ricciring, crown, crucifix[a]
Catherine of Sienastigmata, cross, ring, lily, habit of the Dominican order[a]
Ceciliaorgan or other musical instrument, martyr's palm, roses, sword[a]
Charles Borromeocardinal's robes, the Eucharist[a]
Christophergiant crudely dressed, torrent, tree, branch or large staff, carrying the Christ Child on shoulder[a]
Clare of Assisimonstrance or ciborium, habit of the Poor Clares[a], crozier of an abbess
Clare of Montefalcocross[a]
Clementanchor, fish,[a] Mariner's Cross[b]
Corbinianbear with a packsaddle [9]
Saints Cosmas and Damiana phial, box of ointment[a]
Saints Crispin and Crispinianshoes, millstones[a]
Cyriacusdeacon's vestments[a]


Saint Symbol
David of Scotlandking with sword or sceptre[a]
David of Walesdove[a]
DemetriusDepicted wearing the armor of a Roman soldier, usually carrying a spear, often seated on a red horse[a]
Denishead in hands[a]
Dominicrosary[a], star, dog with a torch[10]
Dominic de la Calzadahen and rooster, habit of a hermit, prayer beads, shepherd's crook[b]
Dorothea of Caesareabasket with flowers or fruits[11]
Dunstanhammer, tongs[a]
Dymphnacrown, sword, lily, lamp, princess with a fettered devil at her feet[a]


Saint Symbol
Earconwaldbishop travelling in a chariot[a]
Edmund the Martyrquiver of arrows[a]
Edward the Confessorking crowned with a nimbus and holding a sceptre[a]
Saint Eligiusbishop portrayed with a crosier in his right hand, on the open palm of his left a miniature church of chased gold; with a hammer, anvil, and horseshoe; or with a horse[a]
Elijahhabit and mantle of the Carmelites, cave, scroll, chariot of fire[a]
Elisabeth of Hungaryalms, flowers, bread, the poor, pitcher[a]
Emericsword, lily[7]
Emilianusriding into battle in the robe of a hermit[a]
Elisabeth of Portugalcrowns, roses, habit of a Third order Franciscan sister, crucifix[a]
Erasmus of Formiaewindlass[a]
Eric of Swedenking being martyred at Mass[a]
Eustacehunting clothes, shining cross or crucifix between the antlers of a stag, bull, horn, oven[a]


Saint Symbol
Faithcross, gridiron, rods, sword[a]
Felix of Burgundyanchor[a]
Fiacrespade, basket of vegetables[a]
FlorianCross of Saint Florian; Armour of a Roman soldier; pitcher of water; pouring water over fire[12]
Florinus of Remüsbottle, glass of wine[a]
Fourteen Holy HelpersSaints Acacius, Barbara, Blaise, Christopher, Cyriacus, Catherine of Alexandria, Denis, Erasmus of Formiae, Eustace, George, Giles, Margaret of Antioch, Pantaleon, and Vitus, shown as a group.[b]
Francis of Assisihabit of the Franciscans, wolf, birds, fish, skull, stigmata[a]
Francis Xaviercrucifix, bell, vessel, crab with a crucifix[a]


Saint Symbol
GabrielArchangel;[13] Clothed in blue or white garments; Carrying a lily,[14] a trumpet, a shining lantern, a branch from Paradise, a scroll,[14] and a scepter.,[14] scroll stating "Ave Maria Gratia Plena"[15][a]
Gallabbot's garment and crozier, blessing a bear that brings him a log of wood; may be shown holding a hermit's tau staff with the bear or carrying a loaf and a pilgrim's staff.<[16]
Genesiustheatre mask[a]
Genevievelit candle, bread, keys, herd, cattle[a]
Georgedragon, soldier or knight in armour, often on white horse, especially in the East, Cross of Saint George[a]
Gerard of CsanádBishop being killed by a spear[a]
Gertrude of Nivellescrown, tapir, lily, mouses and cats [a]
Gervasius and Protasiusthe scourge, the club and the sword[b]
GilesBenedictine habit, hind[a]
Godelievecrown, well, being strangled[b]
Gotthard of Hildesheimdragon; model of a church[17]
Gregory the Greatpapal tiara, crosier, dove (often portrayed at his ear)[a]


Saint Symbol
Helenawearing a royal crown while supporting a cross[a]
Hermann Josephkneeling before a statue of the Virgin and Child and offering an apple[a]
Hermenegildaxe, crown, sword, and cross [b]
Hilary of Poitiersepiscopal vestments, crozier, beard, usually white and often long[b]
Hildegard of Bingenhabit of a Benedictine nun, crozier, with flames above her head, writing in her Liber Scivias, sitting in a hermitage [b]
Hippolytus of Romepapal tiara[a]
Hippolytus the soldiermilitary garb, horse's harness[a]
Honoratus of Amiensbaker's peel or shovel; bishop with a large Host; bishop with three Hosts on a baker's shovel; loaves[a]
Hugh of Lincolnepiscopal vestments, crozier, swan[a]
Humilityhabit of the Vallombrosians[a]
Hyacinth of Polandstatue of the Blessed Virgin Mary; monstrance or ciborium[b]


Saint Symbol
Ignatius of Antiochbishops vestments, surrounded by lions or in chains[a]
Ignatius of LoyolaEucharist, chasuble, book often inscribed with Ad majorem Dei gloriam, or the letters AMDG, the christogram IHS with a cross across the h (traditionally with three nails below the letters, and the letters and nails surrounded by the sun's rays), sword, cross, biretta [a]
Imerius of Immertalhermit's garb and bird of prey[a]
Indaletiusmiter, staff and a book in his hands
Irene of Rometending to Saint Sebastian
Irene of Tomarmartyr's palm[a]
Irmengard of Chiemseecrozier of an abbess, flaming heart, Benedictine habit, crown
IsaiahAn old man with gray hair and beard holding a scroll with words from Isaiah 7:14, (in Latin) ecce virgo concipiet et pariet filium et vocabitur nomen eius Emmanuel (behold, a virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and his name shall be Emmanuel)[b]
Isidore the Laborerpeasant holding a sickle and a sheaf of corn, a sickle and staff, as an angel plows for him; or with an angel and white oxen near him. In Spanish art, his attributes are a spade or a plough.[18]
Isidore of Sevillebees, pen, book[a]
Ivo of Kermartindepicted as a lawyer, holding a document, in legal dress.[a]


Saint Symbol
James the Lesscarpenter saw, fuller's club
Jeromehermitage, lion, hermit wearing a cardinal's galero, vestments of a cardinal, cross, skull, books and writing material, stone in hand[a]
Joan of Arcshield, armament, Cross of Lorraine[a]
Saint Joannalamb[a]
John BerchmansRule of Saint Ignatius, cross, rosary[a]
John Chrysostombees, dove, pen[a]
John of Godalms, heart, crown of thorns[a]
John the Baptistlamb, head on a platter, animal skin (the camel-skin coat of the Gospels), pointing at Christ or a lamb, often portrayed carrying a long crudely made cross[a]
Joseph of AnchietaGospel book, crucifix and Walking stick[a]
Joseph, spouse of MaryChrist Child, white lily, rod, plane, carpentry square, often brown robe and/or mantle[a]
Juan Diegotilmàtli[a]
Justin Martyraxe, sword[a]
Justina of Paduamartyr's palm, knife, unicorn[a]
Juthwararound soft cheese, sword[a]


Saint Symbol
Kateri Tekakwithaturtle, white lily, cross, rosary [a][b]
Katharine Drexelhabit of the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament[a]
Kentigernbishop with a robin on his shoulder; holding a bell and a fish with a ring in its mouth[19]
Kevin of Glendaloughblackbird[a]
Kilianwearing a bishop's mitre and wielding a sword[a]
Kinga of Polanddepicted as an abbess; crown[a]
Kjeld of ViborgPriest with book[a]
Knut of DenmarkRoyal insignia, dagger, lance or arrow.[a]
Kolomanpilgrim's hat and dress, rope in his hand; hanging on a gibbet; tongs and rod; book and maniple[b]


Saint Symbol
Lambert of Maastrichtmartyr's palm[a], sword[b]
Lawrence of Romecross, evangelistary, gridiron, martyr's palm, purse of money, dalmatic, accompanied by a group of poor people.[b]
Lorenzo RuizRosary in clasped hands, gallows and pit, barong tagalog and black trousers, cross, martyr's palm[a]
Leander of Sevillepen[a]
Leonard of Noblaclock, chain, manacles or fetters[b]
Liborius of Le Manspebbles, peacock[b]
LonginusRoman soldier's attire, lance[b]
Louis IX of Franceroyal attire of crown and blue robe decorated with golden fleur-de-lis, crown of thorns, nails[b]
Louis Bertranda chalice containing a snake [b]
Louis of Toulousesilk gloves and a richly embroidered cape with a jeweled clasp at the neck[b]
Lucyrobe of a virgin, with her eyes on a plate, lamp, sword[a]


Saint Symbol
Margaret of Scotlandreading the bible[a]
Margaret the Virgindragon, sometimes in chains, cross, hammer[a]
Maria Gorettifourteen white lilies; humble clothing; (occasionally) a knife[a]
Marthaaspergillum, dragon[a]
Martin of Toursgeese; armament of a Roman soldier, sharing his cloak with a beggar[a]
Martin de Porresbroom, a cat, dog and a mouse eating from the same plate[7]
Mary Magdalenejar of ointment, long hair, washing Christ's feet, skull, crucifix, red egg[a]
Matildapurse, alms[a]
Mauricesoldier in armour, banner with red cross[a]
Maurusscales, spade, crutch[a]
Menas of Cretetwo camels[a]
Michaelscales, banner, sword, dragon[a]
Monicagirdle, tears[a]


Saint Symbol
Nicholasthree golden balls or purses or small treasure cheasts, often on a book, bishop's vestments, crozier, anchor, boat, children, wheat sheaves[a]
Nicholas of TolentinoAugustinian holding a bird on a plate in the right hand and a crucifix on the other hand; holding a basket of bread, giving bread to a sick person; holding a lily or a crucifix garlanded with lilies; with a star above him or on his breast[b]
Nicolás FactorFranciscan habit, skull, fire [b]
Pope Nicholas Irooster[20]
Ninianclogrinny, or the Bell of St. Ninian[a]
Norbert of Xantenmonstrance, cross with two beams[a]


Saint Symbol
Obadiahas a prophet with the index finger of his right hand pointing upward[b]
Oda of Scotlanddepicted wearing a long blue gown with one shoulder bare; usually carries a staff or a book; always shown with a magpie on her hand and a crown under her feet[a]
Odile of AlsaceAbbess praying before an altar; woman with a book on which lie two eyes; larkspur[b]
Olaf of Norwaycrown, axe, standing in a Viking boat[a]
Onuphriusold hermit dressed only in long hair and a loincloth of leaves; with an angel bringing him the Eucharist or bread; hermit with a crown at his feet
Opportuna of Montreuildepicted carrying an abbess's crozier and a casket of relics. She may also be shown with the Virgin appearing at her deathbed or as a princess with a basket of cherries and a fleur-de-lys[21]
Osgythrepresented in art with a stag behind her and a long key hanging from her girdle, or otherwise carrying a key and a sword crossed, a device which commemorates St. Peter, St. Paul and St. Andrew[22]


Saint Symbol
Pancrassword, martyr's palm[a]
Pantaleonnailed hands[a]
Patrickcross, harp, serpent, baptismal font, demons, shamrock[a]
Paul the Apostlesword, book or scroll, horse; long, pointed beard, and balding backwards from forehead.[a]
Peter of Saint Joseph de Betancurbell, Franciscan habit and spear canary pastor.[a]
Pedro Calungsodmartyr's palm, spear, bolo, doctrina christiana book, rosary, christogram, crucifix[a]
Pancrassword, palm branch[a]
Petronillabroom and/or a set of keys, dolphin[a]
Philip Neriwhite lily[a]
Philomenaanchor, martyr's palm, crown of roses, arrows[a]


Saint Symbol
Quentindepicted as a young man with two spits; vestments of a deacon; with a broken wheel; with a chair to which he is transfixed; with a sword or beheaded, a dove flying from his severed head[a]
Quiricusdepicted as a naked child riding on a wild boar[a]
Quirinus of MalmedyVestments of a priest celebrating Mass, dragon[23]
Quirinus of Neussmilitary attire; knight with lance, sword, hawk; banner or sign with nine balls[a]
Quirinus of Sesciamillstone hanging from his neck[b]
Quiteriadepicted with a dog on a lead; depicted with her head in her hands, emerging from the sea.[a]


Saint Symbol
Raphael (archangel)fish, walking stick, leading Tobias by the hand[b]
Raymond NonnatusA Mercedarian friar wearing a cardinal's red mozzetta, holding a monstrance and a martyr's palm branch [b]
Raymond of Penyafortskimming across the sea with his cape as both boat and sail[b]
Remigiusdove, book, lamp[b]
Reparatamartyr's crown and palm; a dove; a banner with a red cross on a white field; sometimes depicted with St. Ansanus[24]
Richardbishop with overturned chalice[a]
Rita of Casciaroses, roses and figs, crucifix, thorn, robe of a widow or Augustinian habit sometimes with a wound or the marks of a thorn crown on her forehead[a]
Rochangel, dog with bread, showing his plague mark, pilgrim's dress[a]
Rosalia of Palermobeing crowned by the Divine infant with roses, cross, book, or skull, lilies, chisel, hammer[b]
Rose of Limacrown of thorns, anchor, city, roses, crown of roses, sometimes wearing habit of the Dominican order [a]
Rufina and Justaa model of the Giralda; earthenware pots, bowls and platters; books on which are two lumps of potter's clay; palm of martyrdom; lion[b]


Saint Symbol
Sativolascythe, well[a]
Sava of Serbiabook[a]
Saint Scholasticahabit of a Benedictine nun, dove, Rule of St. Benedict, crozier of an abbess [b]
Seraphim of SarovWearing peasant clothing, often kneeling with his hands upraised in prayer crucifix worn about his neck, hands crossed over chest[a]
Sebastianarrows, crown[a]
Spyridon of Corfubishop with Gospel; long, pointed beard, and wearing a shepherd's hat[a]
Stanislaus of Szczepanówbishop's vestments and insignia, sword[a]
Stanisław KazimierczykCanon's attire[a]
Stephen the Martyrvestments of a deacon, stone(s), martyr's palm [a]
Stephen of Hungaryttire of a King, and holding an orb or a sceptre with double cross[7]
Swithunbishop with bridge, broken eggs[a]



Saint Symbol
Teresa of Ávilahabit of a Carmelite nun, holding a (fiery) pen, pierced heart, arrow[a]
Teresa of the Andeshabit of a Carmelite nun, crucifix, crown of flowers[a]
Teresa Benedicta of the crosshabit of a Carmelite nun (sometimes with a yellow badge), cross, martyr's palm, book, Hebrew scroll, holding a tallit, burning bush
Thérèse de Lisieuxmany roses, sometimes entwining a crucifix[a]
Thomas Aquinasmonstrance, golden sun on his breast, dove, ox[a]
Thomas Becketsword, and wearing chancellor's robe and neck chain[a]
Thomas Moreaxe[a]
Timothythree stones and a clubclub and stones; broken image of Diana[25]


Saint Symbol
Ulrich of Augsburgvestments of a bishop, holding a fish; at dinner with Saint Wolfgang; rewarding a messenger with a goose leg; giving a garment to a beggar; with Saint Afra; riding through a river on horseback as his companion sinks; with a cross given him by an angel[b]
Urbanportrayed in art after his beheading, with the papal tiara near him[a]
Urban of Langresvestments of a bishop, with a bunch of grapes or a vine at his side; a book with a wine vessel on it[a]
Ursicinusbook and fleur-de-lis[a]
Ursulaarrow; banner; cloak; shot with arrows; depicted accompanied by a varied number of virgins who are being martyred in various ways; standing on a ship with her companions[a]
Ursus of Aostavestments and crozier of a bishop (sometimes embellished with bear fur; birds on his shoulder; striking water from a rock[a]


Saint Symbol
Valentinebirds; roses; vestments of a priest or a bishop; with a crippled person or a child with epilepsy at his feet; rooster; being beheaded; bearing a sword; holding a sun; giving sight to a blind girl[26]
Vedastwolf carrying a goose in its mouth; child; bear[a]
Veneracrown; book; martyr's palm interlaced with a triple crown (signifying the fact that she was a virgin, an apostle of the faith, and a martyr; cross{[b]
VeronicaVeil of Veronica[a]
Victor of Marseilleswindmill[a]
Vigilius of Trentshoes or clogs[a]
Vincent de Paulchildren[a]
Vincent Ferrerpulpit, cardinal's hat, trumpet, captives[a]
Vitusbook, cross, rooster, lion, bread, cauldron, eagle, hare; holding a church model[a]


Saint Symbol
Wenceslaus of Bohemiacrown, dagger[a]
William of Monteverginewolf and pastoral crook[a]
William of Yorkbishop's vestments, crozier, crossing the River Tweed[a]
Winnochand-mill, bridge, grinding corn[a]
Wolfgang of Regensburga church model with an adze lodged in the roof, a wolf[a]


Saint Symbol
Xenia of Saint Petersburgwalking stick[a]
Xystusbook, papal insignia (mostly tiara and papal ferula), martyr's palm, book[a]


Saint Symbol
Yrieixbishop's vestments, crozier[a]


Saint Symbol
ZacharyMaking peace with King Luitprand. Sometimes he may have an olive branch and a dove over him [a]
Zenobius of Florencevestments of a bishop; flowering tree; bringing a dead man or a boy back to life[a]
Zitabag, keys[a]

Further reading

  • Delaney, John P. (1980). Dictionary of Saints (Second ed.). Garden City, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-13594-7.
  • Lanzi, Fernando; Lanzi, Gioia (September 1, 2004). Saints and their Symbols: Recognizing Saints in Art and in Popular Images. Translated by O'Connell, Matthew J. ISBN 9780814629703.
  • Post, W. Ellwood (1975). Saints, Signs and Symbols (2 ed.). SPCK Publishing. ISBN 9780281028948.
  • Schiller, Gertrud (1971). Iconography of Christian Art. 1. ISBN 978-0821203651.
  • Walsh, Michael (2007). A New Dictionary of Saints: East and West. Liturgical Press. ISBN 978-0-8146-3186-7.
  • Whittemore, Carroll E. (1980). Symbols of the Church. Abingdon Press. ISBN 0687183014.

See also


  1. "List of saints". Catholic Online.
  2. "Iconography". Christian Iconography. October 20, 2015.


  1.  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Symbolism". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  2. Mayernik, David T. (2018). "A Vast, Immeasurable Sanctuary: Iconography for Churches". Sacred Architecture Journal. 5: 22.
  3. "Eastern Orthodox and Catholic teaching about Icons".
  4. Hassett, M. (1911). "Palm in Christian Symbolism". The Catholic Encyclopedia.
  5. Saint Jerome; St. Jerome (December 2008). Commentary on Matthew (The Fathers of the Church, Volume 117). CUA Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-8132-0117-7.
  6. Kugeares, Sophia Manoulian (1991). Images Of The Annunciation Of The Virgin Mary Of The 13th, 14th And 15th Century.
  7. Stracke, Richard (October 20, 2015). "Hungarian Saints: Adalbert, Martin, Stanislas, Emeric and Stephen". Christian Iconography.
  8. Fongemie, Pauly. "SYMBOLS IN ART". Catholic tradition. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  9. "L'Osservatore Romano publishes new Papal coat of arms". Catholic News Agency. April 28, 2005. Retrieved January 5, 2007.
  10. Libellus de principiis, citing the story of his birth
  11. "Saint Dorothy of Caesarea". Patron Saints Index. March 18, 2008. Archived from the original on March 18, 2008.
  12. Mendler, Mitch. "Saint Florian - the patron saint of the fire service". Retrieved January 16, 2019.
  13. Zimmerman, Julie. "Friar Jack's Catechism Quiz: Test Your Knowledge on Angels". Archived from the original on May 21, 2012. Retrieved February 16, 2012.
  14. Ronner, John (March 1993). Know Your Angels: The Angel Almanac With Biographies of 100 Prominent Angels in Legend & Folklore-And Much More!. Murfreesboro, TN: Mamre Press. pp. 70–72, 73. ISBN 9780932945402. LCCN 93020336. OCLC 27726648. Retrieved November 15, 2013. Artists like to show Gabriel carrying a white lily (Mary's flower), a scroll and a scepter.
  15. OrthodoxWiki. "Archangel Gabriel" (Internet). OrthodoxWiki. Retrieved November 15, 2013. Because the Angels are incorporeal beings, though they nevertheless take on human form when appearing to mankind, it can be difficult to differentiate one from another in icons. However, Gabriel is usually portrayed with certain distinguishing characteristics. He typically wears blue or white garments; he holds either a lily (representing the Theotokos), a trumpet, a shining lantern, a branch from Paradise presented to him by the Theotokos, or a spear in his right hand and often a mirror—made of jasper and with a Χ (the first letter of Christ (Χριστος) in Greek)—in his left hand. He should not be confused with the Archangel Michael, who carries a sword, shield, date-tree branch, and in the other hand a spear, white banner (possibly with scarlet cross) and tends to wear red. Michael's specific mission is to suppress enemies of the true Church (hence the military theme), while Gabriel's is to announce mankind's salvation.
  16. "Saint of the Day, October 16". St. Patrick Catholic Church. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
  17. "Godehard (Gotthard) von Hildesheim". Ökumenisches Heiligenlexikon (in German). Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  18. d, d. "Isidore and Maria, Patron Saints of Farmers". d. National Catholic Rural Life Conference. Archived from the original on April 6, 2013. Retrieved April 6, 2013.
  19. "Saint Kentigern". Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
  20. Adler, Jerry; Lawler, Andrew. "How the Chicken Conquered the World". Smithsonian. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved June 1, 2012.
  21. Rabenstein, Katherine (April 1999). "Opportuna of Montreuil, OSB". Saints O' the Day for April 22. Archived from the original on February 6, 2007. Retrieved February 24, 2012.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  22. "Lives".
  23. Baring-Gould, Sabine (1898). "The Lives of the Saints". The Lives of the Saints.
  24. Jameson, Anna (1857). Sacred and Legendary Art. Longman, Brown, Green. p. 648.
  25. "Saints Timothy & Titus", Saints, Passionist nun.
  26. Jones, Terry. "Valentine of Terni". Patron Saints Tom. Archived from the original on April 1, 2010. Retrieved February 14, 2007.