San Diego

San Diego (Spanish for 'Saint Didacus'; /ˌsæn diˈɡ/ SAN dee-AY-goh, Spanish: [san ˈdjeɣo]) is a city on the Pacific Ocean coast of Southern California located immediately adjacent to the Mexico–United States border. With a 2020 population of 1,386,932,[9] it is the eighth-most populous city in the United States, the second-most populous city in California and the seat of San Diego County, the fifth-most populous county in the United States, with 3,286,069 estimated residents as of 2021.[13] The city is known for its mild year-round Mediterranean climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches and parks, long association with the United States Navy, and recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego is the second-largest city in California after Los Angeles.

San Diego
Official seal of San Diego
Official logo of San Diego
"America's Finest City", "Birthplace of California", "City in Motion"[1]
Semper Vigilans (Latin for 'Ever Vigilant')
Location of San Diego in San Diego County, California
Location of San Diego in San Diego County, California
San Diego is located in California
San Diego
San Diego
Location within California
San Diego is located in the United States
San Diego
San Diego
Location within the United States
Coordinates: 32°42′54″N 117°09′45″W
CountryUnited States
CountySan Diego County
EstablishedJuly 16, 1769
IncorporatedMarch 27, 1850[2]
Named forSaint Didacus of Alcalá
  TypeStrong Mayor[3]
  BodySan Diego City Council
  MayorTodd Gloria (D)
  City AttorneyMara Elliott (D)[4]
  City Council[5]
  State Assembly Members
  State Senators
  Total372.42 sq mi (964.56 km2)
  Land325.88 sq mi (844.02 km2)
  Water46.54 sq mi (120.54 km2)  12.68%
Elevation62 ft (19 m)
Highest elevation1,591 ft (485 m)
Lowest elevation
0 ft (0 m)
  Rank8th in the United States
2nd in California
  Density4,255.96/sq mi (1,643.25/km2)
  Urban3,070,300 (US: 15th)
  Urban density4,550.5/sq mi (1,756.9/km2)
  Metro3,298,634 (US: 17th)
DemonymSan Diegan
Time zoneUTC−08:00 (PST)
  Summer (DST)UTC−07:00 (PDT)
ZIP Codes[12]
92101–92124, 92126–92132, 92134–92140, 92142, 92143, 92145, 92147, 92149–92155, 92158–92161, 92163, 92165–92179, 92182, 92186, 92187, 92190–92199
Area codes619/858
FIPS code06-66000
GNIS feature IDs1661377, 2411782

Historically home to the Kumeyaay Native Americans, San Diego has been referred to as the Birthplace of California, since it was the first site visited and settled by Europeans on what is now the U.S. West Coast.[14] Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later. The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly declared Mexican Empire, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California was conquered by the U.S. in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850.

San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, tourism, international trade, research, and manufacturing. The city is the economic center of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-most populous transborder metropolitan area in the Western Hemisphere (after Detroit–Windsor), home to an estimated 4,922,723 people as of 2012.[15] The primary border crossing between San Diego and Tijuana, the San Ysidro Port of Entry, is the busiest international land border crossing in the world outside of Asia (fourth-busiest overall). The city's airport, San Diego International Airport, is the busiest single-runway airport in the world.[lower-alpha 1][16]

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