Military of the Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian army was the primary military body of the Sasanian armed forces, serving alongside the Sasanian navy. The birth of the army dates back to the rise of Ardashir I (r. 224–241), the founder of the Sasanian Empire, to the throne. Ardashir aimed at the revival of the Persian Empire, and to further this aim, he reformed the military by forming a standing army which was under his personal command and whose officers were separate from satraps, local princes and nobility. He restored the Achaemenid military organizations, retained the Parthian cavalry model, and employed new types of armour and siege warfare techniques. This was the beginning for a military system which served him and his successors for over 400 years, during which the Sasanian Empire was, along with the Roman Empire and later the East Roman Empire, one of the two superpowers of Late Antiquity in Western Eurasia. The Sasanian army protected Eranshahr ("the realm of Iran") from the East against the incursions of central Asiatic nomads like the Hephthalites and Turks, while in the west it was engaged in a recurrent struggle against the Roman Empire.[2]

Sassanian army
Military leaderEran-spahbed
Political leaderSassanian king
Dates of operation224–651
AllegianceSasanian Empire
HeadquartersCtesiphon[citation needed]
Active regionsAsia Minor, Levant, North Africa, Caucasus, Khorasan, Transoxiana, Balkans, Mesopotamia, Arabian Peninsula
Part ofSasanian Empire
AlliesSabir Huns, Sarmatians, Osroene, Armenia, Iberia, Albania, Lakhmids, Lazica, Avars, Sclaveni, Xionites
OpponentsRomans, Eastern Romans, Huns, Rashidun Caliphate, Hephthalites, Kushans, Khazars, Western Turkic Khaganate, nomadic Arabs, Aksumites, and others
StandardDerafsh Kaviani