Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian (/səˈsɑːniən, səˈsniən/) or Sassanid Empire, officially known as the Empire of Iranians (Middle Persian: 𐭠𐭩𐭥𐭠𐭭𐭱𐭲𐭥𐭩 Ērānshahr),[lower-alpha 1] and also called the Neo-Persian Empire by historians,[9] was the last Persian imperial dynasty before the Muslim conquest in the mid seventh century AD. Named after the House of Sasan, it endured for over four centuries, from 224 to 651 AD, making it the longest-lived Persian dynasty.[2][10] The Sasanian Empire succeeded the Parthian Empire, and reestablished the Iranians as a superpower in late antiquity, alongside its neighbouring arch-rival, the Roman-Byzantine Empire.[11][12][13]

Sasanian Empire
224–651
Derafsh Kaviani
(state flag)
Simurgh
(imperial emblem)
The Sasanian Empire at its greatest extent c. 620, under Khosrow II
Capital
Common languagesMiddle Persian (official)[4]
Other languages
Religion
GovernmentFeudal monarchy[5]
Shahanshah 
 224–241
Ardashir I (first)
 632–651
Yazdegerd III (last)
Historical eraLate Antiquity
28 April 224
 The Iberian War
526–532
602–628
628–632
633–651
651
Area
550[7][8]3,500,000 km2 (1,400,000 sq mi)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Parthian Empire
Kingdom of Iberia
Kushan Empire
Kingdom of Armenia
Kings of Persis
Rashidun Caliphate
Dabuyid dynasty
Bavand dynasty
Zarmihrids
Masmughans of Damavand
Qarinvand dynasty

The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, a local Iranian ruler who rose to power as Parthia weakened from internal strife and wars with Rome. After defeating the last Parthian shahanshah, Artabanus IV, in the battle of Hormozdgan in 224, he established the Sasanian dynasty and set out to restore the legacy of the Achaemenid Empire by expanding Iran's dominions. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of present-day Iran and Iraq and stretched from the eastern Mediterranean (including Anatolia and Egypt) to Pakistan, and from parts of southern Arabia to the Caucasus and Central Asia. According to legend, the vexilloid[lower-alpha 2] of the Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.[14]

The period of Sasanian rule is considered a high point in Iranian history,[15] and in many ways was the peak of ancient Iranian culture before the Muslim conquest and subsequent Islamisation. The Sasanians tolerated the varied faiths and cultures of their subjects, developed a complex, centralised government bureaucracy and revitalized Zoroastrianism as a legitimising and unifying force of their rule. They also built grand monuments and public works and patronised cultural and educational institutions. The empire's cultural influence extended far beyond its territorial borders—including Western Europe,[16] Africa,[17] China and India[18]—and helped shape European and Asian medieval art.[19] Persian culture became the basis for much of Islamic culture, influencing art, architecture, music, literature, and philosophy throughout the Muslim world.[20]