List of Scottish monarchs

The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. According to tradition, the first King of Scots was Kenneth I MacAlpin (Cináed mac Ailpín), who founded the state in 843. Historically, the Kingdom of Scotland is thought to have grown out of an earlier "Kingdom of the Picts" (and later the Kingdom of Strathclyde that was conquered in the 11th century, becoming part of the new Kingdom of Scotland) though in reality the distinction is a product of later medieval myth and confusion from a change in nomenclature i.e. Rex Pictorum ('King of the Picts') becomes Rí Alban (King of Alba) under Donald II when annals switched from Latin to vernacular around the end of the 9th century, by which time the word Alba in Scottish Gaelic had come to refer to the Kingdom of the Picts rather than Britain (its older meaning).[1]

Monarchy of Scotland
First monarchKenneth I MacAlpin
Family tree of Scottish monarchs and pretenders.
Pretenders are italicized.
Text reading Rí Alban (King of Scotland) in MS Rawlinson B 489. (Annals of Ulster)

The Kingdom of the Picts just became known as the Kingdom of Alba in Scottish Gaelic, which later became known in Scots and English as Scotland; the terms are retained in both languages to this day. By the late 11th century at the very latest, Scottish kings were using the term rex Scottorum, or King of Scots, to refer to themselves in Latin. The Kingdom of Scotland was merged with the Kingdom of England to form a single Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. Thus, Queen Anne became the last monarch of the ancient kingdoms of Scotland and England and the first of Great Britain, although the kingdoms had shared a monarch since 1603 (see Union of the Crowns). Her uncle Charles II was the last monarch to be crowned in Scotland, at Scone in 1651. He had a second coronation in England ten years later.

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