Second Balkan War

The Second Balkan War was a conflict which broke out when Bulgaria, dissatisfied with its share of the spoils of the First Balkan War, attacked its former allies, Serbia and Greece, on 16 (O.S.) / 29 (N.S.) June 1913. Serbian and Greek armies repulsed the Bulgarian offensive and counter-attacked, entering Bulgaria. With Bulgaria also having previously engaged in territorial disputes with Romania[11] and the bulk of Bulgarian forces engaged in the south, the prospect of an easy victory incited Romanian intervention against Bulgaria. The Ottoman Empire also took advantage of the situation to regain some lost territories from the previous war. When Romanian troops approached the capital Sofia, Bulgaria asked for an armistice, resulting in the Treaty of Bucharest, in which Bulgaria had to cede portions of its First Balkan War gains to Serbia, Greece and Romania. In the Treaty of Constantinople, it lost Adrianople to the Ottomans.

Second Balkan War
Part of the Balkan Wars

Map of the main land operations of the Allied belligerents
(amphibious actions not shown)
Date29 June – 10 August 1913
(1 month, 1 week and 5 days)

Bulgarian defeat


Bulgaria cedes:

 Bulgaria  Serbia
 Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
  • 348,000[2]
  • 330,000[2]
  • 255,000[3]
  • 148,000
  • 12,802[2]
  • Total:
  • 1,093,802
Casualties and losses
 Kingdom of Bulgaria:[4][better source needed]
  • 7,583 killed
  • 9,694 missing
  • 42,911 wounded
  • 3,049 deceased
  • 140 artillery pieces captured or destroyed
  • Total: 65,927 killed or wounded
 Serbia: 50,000
  • 9,000 killed
  • 36,000 wounded
  • 5,000 dead of disease[5]

 Greece: 29,886

  • 5,851 killed in action
  • 23,847 wounded in action
  • 188 missing in action[6]

 Montenegro: 1,201

  • 240 killed
  • 961 wounded[5]

 Romania: 1,600[7][8][9]

 Ottoman Empire: 4,000+

  • negligible combat casualties
  • 4,000 dead of disease[10]


  • c. 76,000 combat casualties
  • c.91,000 total losses

The political developments and military preparations for the Second Balkan War attracted an estimated 200 to 300 war correspondents from around the world.[12]