Second Mexican Empire

The Mexican Empire (Spanish: Imperio Mexicano) or Second Mexican Empire (Segundo Imperio Mexicano) was the name of Mexico under a constitutional, hereditary monarchy declared by a Mexican Assembly of Notables in accordance with the interests of the French Empire, during the Second French intervention in Mexico. Napoleon III of France wanted to establish a monarchist ally in the Americas as a restraint upon the growing power of the United States.[2] Chosen as the Mexican emperor was Austrian Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian, of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. His wife and empress of Mexico was the Belgian princess Charlotte of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

Mexican Empire
Imperio Mexicano (in Spanish)
Motto: Equidad en la Justicia
"Equity in Justice"
Anthem: "Himno Nacional Mexicano"
(English: "National Anthem of Mexico")
Territory of the Second Mexican Empire upon establishment
StatusClient state of France (de jure)
Protectorate of France (de facto)
CapitalMexico City
Common languagesSpanish
Roman Catholicism
GovernmentConstitutional monarchy
Maximilian I
Regency of the Mexican Empire 
Juan Almonte, José Salas, Pelagio de Labastida
Prime Minister[1] 
José María Lacunza
Teodosio Lares
Santiago Vidaurri
Historical eraNew Imperialism
8 December 1861
 Maximilian I accepts Mexican crown
10 April 1864
 Emperor Maximilian I executed
19 June 1867
ISO 3166 codeMX
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Second Federal Republic of Mexico
Restored Republic
Today part ofMexico

Mexican conservatives had played a role in instigating the birth of the Empire, adding an element of civil war to the French Intervention, but the imperialists were never able to gain full control of the nation, and supporters of the Mexican Republic continued to wage war against the Empire. During his short reign, Maximilian's liberal ideals alienated him from his conservative supporters, but he gained limited support from moderate liberals, and attempted to pass sweeping reforms for the nation.

French troops began to withdraw in 1866, after considering the war to be unwinnable due to possible conflict in Europe. The United States refused to recognize the Empire, and after the end of its own civil war in 1865, began to provide support to Mexican republican forces and the Empire came to an end on 19 June 1867 when Maximilian was executed by the government of the restored Mexican republic, along with his two leading Mexican generals, Mejía and Miramón.