Second Mexican Empire
The Mexican Empire (Spanish: Imperio Mexicano) or Second Mexican Empire (Segundo Imperio Mexicano) was the name of Mexico under a constitutional, hereditary monarchy declared by a Mexican Assembly of Notables in accordance with the interests of the French Empire, during the Second French intervention in Mexico. Napoleon III of France wanted to establish a monarchist ally in the Americas as a restraint upon the growing power of the United States. Chosen as the Mexican emperor was Austrian Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian, of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. His wife and empress of Mexico was the Belgian princess Charlotte of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.
Imperio Mexicano (in Spanish)
|Motto: Equidad en la Justicia|
"Equity in Justice"
|Anthem: "Himno Nacional Mexicano"|
(English: "National Anthem of Mexico")
|Status||Client state of France (de jure)|
Protectorate of France (de facto)
|Regency of the Mexican Empire|
|Juan Almonte, José Salas, Pelagio de Labastida|
|José María Lacunza|
|Historical era||New Imperialism|
|8 December 1861|
• Maximilian I accepts Mexican crown
|10 April 1864|
• Emperor Maximilian I executed
|19 June 1867|
|ISO 3166 code||MX|
|Today part of||Mexico|
Mexican conservatives had played a role in instigating the birth of the Empire, adding an element of civil war to the French Intervention, but the imperialists were never able to gain full control of the nation, and supporters of the Mexican Republic continued to wage war against the Empire. During his short reign, Maximilian's liberal ideals alienated him from his conservative supporters, but he gained limited support from moderate liberals, and attempted to pass sweeping reforms for the nation.
French troops began to withdraw in 1866, after considering the war to be unwinnable due to possible conflict in Europe. The United States refused to recognize the Empire, and after the end of its own civil war in 1865, began to provide support to Mexican republican forces and the Empire came to an end on 19 June 1867 when Maximilian was executed by the government of the restored Mexican republic, along with his two leading Mexican generals, Mejía and Miramón.