Second Sudanese Civil War

The Second Sudanese Civil War was a conflict from 1983 to 2005 between the central Sudanese government and the Sudan People's Liberation Army. It was largely a continuation of the First Sudanese Civil War of 1955 to 1972. Although it originated in southern Sudan, the civil war spread to the Nuba mountains and the Blue Nile. It lasted for 22 years and is one of the longest civil wars on record. The war resulted in the independence of South Sudan six years after the war ended.

Second Sudanese Civil War
Part of the Sudanese civil wars and the Arab–Israeli conflict

Guerrilla forces of the Sudan People's Liberation Army celebrate over a disabled tank.
Date5 June 1983 – 9 January 2005
(21 years, 7 months and 4 days)
Location
Blue Nile, Nuba Mountains, Southern Sudan
Result

Stalemate[1]

Belligerents

Sudan

SSDF
SPLA dissidents

Nuer White Army
Ugandan insurgents:

 Zaire (1994–1997)[6][7]
al-Qaeda (1991–1996)[8][9]
 Iraq[lower-alpha 1]
 China[lower-alpha 2]


Combat aid:
 Libya (1986–1991)[13][14]
 DR Congo (1998–2003)
Non-combat aid:
 Iran[15]
 Belarus (from 1996)[16][17]

SPLA

SSLM
NDA
Sudanese Alliance Forces[19]
Anyanya II
Eastern Coalition
Derg (until 1987)[20]
PDR Ethiopia (1987–1991)[20]
FDR Ethiopia (1995–1998)[9]
 Eritrea (1996–1998, 2002–2005)[21]
 Uganda (from 1993)[22][23]
Non-combat aid:
 Israel[24]
Commanders and leaders
Gaafar Nimeiry
Suwar al-Dahab
Sadiq al-Mahdi
Omar al-Bashir
Paulino Matip Nhial
Tharcisse Renzaho[2]
Riek Machar
Lam Akol
Kerubino Kuanyin
Peter Par Jiek
Juma Oris
Joseph Kony
Mobutu Sese Seko
Osama Bin Laden
John Garang
Salva Kiir Mayardit
Dominic Dim Deng
Riek Machar
Lam Akol
Kerubino Kuanyin
James Hoth Mai
Peter Par Jiek
Peter Gadet
Malik Agar
/ Mengistu Haile Mariam
Meles Zenawi
Isaias Afwerki
Yoweri Museveni
Strength

Tens of thousands

  • Ex-FAR: c. 500[2]
Tens of thousands
Casualties and losses
1–2.5 million dead (mostly civilians, due to starvation and drought)

Roughly two million people died as a result of war, famine and disease caused by the conflict. Four million people in southern Sudan were displaced at least once (and normally repeatedly) during the war. The civilian death toll is one of the highest of any war since World War II[25] and was marked by numerous human rights violations, including slavery and mass killings.