The Second Temple (Hebrew: בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish holy temple, which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, between c. 516 BCE and c. 70 CE, defined as the Second Temple period.
|Region||Second Temple Judaism|
|Location||Herodian Temple Mount, Jerusalem|
|Creator||Zerubbabel (according to Bible), rebuilt by Herod the Great|
|Height (max)||45.72 metres (150.0 ft)|
|Parent listing||Second Temple|
|Excavation dates||1930, 1967, 1968, 1970–1978, 1996–1999, 2007|
|Archaeologists||Charles Warren, Benjamin Mazar, Ronny Reich, Eli Shukron, Yaakov Billig|
|Condition||Temple proper: destroyed; archaeological park|
|Ownership||Jerusalem Islamic Waqf|
|Public access||Temple esplanade (Haram): limited; Western Wall: by gender; archaeological park: yes|
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Second Temple replaced Solomon's Temple (the First Temple), which was destroyed by the Neo-Babylonian Empire in 586 BCE, when Jerusalem was conquered and part of the population of the Kingdom of Judah was taken into exile to Babylon.
According to the Bible, the Second Temple was originally a rather modest structure constructed by a number of Jewish exile groups returning to the Levant from Babylon under the Achaemenid-appointed governor Zerubbabel. However, during the reign of Herod the Great, the Second Temple was completely refurbished, and the original structure was totally overhauled into the large and magnificent edifices and façades that are more recognizable. Much as the Babylonians destroyed the First Temple, the Romans destroyed the Second Temple and Jerusalem in c. 70 CE as retaliation for an ongoing Jewish revolt. The Second Temple lasted for a total of 585 years (516 BCE to c. 70 CE).