Serb diaspora


Serb diaspora (Serbian: Српска дијаспора/Srpska dijaspora) refers to the diaspora communities of ethnic Serbs. It is not to be confused with the Serbian diaspora, which refers to migrants, regardless of ethnicity, from Serbia. Due to generalization in censuses outside former Yugoslavia to exclude ethnicity, the total number of the Serb diaspora population cannot be known by certainty. It is estimated that 2–3 million Serbs live outside former Yugoslavia.

Countries with significant Serbian population and descendants.
  Serbia
  + 100,000
  + 10,000
  + 1,000

Migrational waves


There were several waves of Serb emigration:

  • First wave took place since the end of 19th century and lasted until World War II and was caused by economic reasons; particularly large numbers of Serbs (mainly from peripheral ethnic areas such as Herzegovina, Montenegro, Dalmatia, and Lika) emigrated to the United States.[1]
  • Second wave took place after the end of the World War II. At this time, members of royalist Chetniks and other political opponents of communist regime fled the country mainly going overseas (United States and Australia) and, to a lesser degree, United Kingdom.[2]
  • Third, and by far the largest wave, was economic emigration started in the 1960s when several Western European countries signed bilateral agreements with Yugoslavia allowing the recruitment of industrial workers to those countries, and lasted until the end of the 1980s. Main destinations were West Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, and to a lesser extent France and Sweden. That generation of diaspora is collectively known as gastarbajteri, after German gastarbeiter, "guest-worker", since most of the emigrants headed for German-speaking countries.
  • Most recent emigration took place during the 1990s, and was caused by both political and economic reasons. The Yugoslav wars caused many Serbs from Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina to leave their countries in the first half of the 1990s. The international economic sanctions imposed on Serbia caused economic collapse with an estimated 300,000 people leaving Serbia during that period, 20% of which had a higher education.[3][4]

Serb diaspora by states


List of countries and territories by ethnic Serb population
Country Estimation Official data[a] Notes
 Germany 500,000 (2014 government est.[5]); older estimations: 1,000,000 (2009,[6] 2012[7]); 1,000,000 (January 2012)[8] N/A See also Serbs in Germany.
 Austria 500,000 (2008,[9] 2010,[10] January 2012[8]) N/A See also Serbs in Austria.
 United States 1,000,000 (January 2012)[8] 189,671 (2013)[11][b] See also Serbs in the United States.
  Switzerland 150,000 (2000);[12] 200,000 (January 2012)[8] N/A See also Serbs in Switzerland.
 Sweden 110,000 (2011,[13] January 2012[8]); 120,000 (2015);[14] and 140,000 (2011).[15] N/A See also Serbs in Sweden.
 Canada 100,000125,000 (2008);[16] 250,000 (January 2012)[8][b] 80,320 (2011) See also Serbs in Canada.
 France 120,000 (2002,[17] January 2012)[8] N/A See also Serbs in France.
 United Kingdom 70,000 (2001, Serbian Embassy[18]); 80,000 (January 2012)[8] N/A See also Serbs in the United Kingdom.
 Italy 70,000 (January 2012)[8] N/A See also Serbs in Italy.
 Australia 130,000 (January 2012)[8] 104,549 (2016) See also Serbs in Australia.
Benelux 50,000 (January 2012)[8] N/A See also Serbs in Luxembourg.
 Argentina 7,000 (January 2012);[8] 30,000 (ancestry)[19] N/A See also Serbs in South America
 South Africa 20,000 (2012);[20] 25,000 (January 2012)[8] N/A See also Serbs in South Africa
 Romania 23,000 (January 2012)[8] 18,076 (2011)[21] See also Serbs in Romania.
 Greece 15,000 (January 2012)[8] N/A See also Serbs in Greece.
 Hungary 10,000 (January 2012)[8] 7,210 (2011)[22] See also Serbs in Hungary.
 Finland 4,000 (2004)[23] 8,737 (Born in Serbia, 2018)[24]
 Spain 7,000 (January 2012)[8] N/A See also Serbs in Spain.
 Russia 60,000 (January 2012)[8] 3,510 (2015)[25] See also Serbs in Russia.
 New Zealand 7,000 (January 2012)[8] 1,059 (2013)[26] See also Serbs in New Zealand.
 Chile 7,000 (January 2012)[8] N/A See also Serbs in South America.
 Brazil 6,000 (January 2012)[8] N/A See also Serbs in South America.
 Slovakia 3,600 (2014)[27] N/A See also Serbs in Slovakia
 Venezuela 2,000 (January 2012)[28] N/A See also Serbs in South America.
 Mexico 1,000 (January 2012)[8] N/A
 Zambia 24 families (May 2009)[29] N/A
 Kazakhstan 213 (2016)

Notable people


The list include Serbs born abroad, people of full or partial Serbian descent and immigrants from Serbia or Serbian native communities who made significant career abroad.

See also


Notes


  1. ^
    If the governmental statistics agency includes ethnicity (or ethnic ancestry) of nationals (citizens) in censuses.
  2. ^
    The number of people of Serb descent in North America is higher, as people who identify as having Yugoslav ancestry (310,682 in the U.S.,[30] 48,320 in Canada[31]) are mostly of Serb origin.[32]
  3. ^
    The Australian census records both Australian citizens by ethnicity/ethnic ancestry (69,544 of "Serbian ancestry") and foreign-born nationals (20,267 Serbian-born). The number of people of Serb descent in Australia is higher. The Serb community in the country has urged people of Serb descent to answer clearly on the censuses, following the decrease in numbers;[33] the census in 2006 counting 95,362 Australians of "Serbian ancestry" (-27.1%).[34]

References


  1. Марковић, Предраг Ј. "Пламени круг српске културе". Politika Online. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  2. Марковић, Предраг Ј. "Пламени круг српске културе". Politika Online. Retrieved 2019-10-02.
  3. "Serbia seeks to fill the '90s brain-drainage gap". EMG.rs. 5 September 2008. Archived from the original on May 29, 2012.
  4. "Survey S&M 1/2003". Yugoslav Survey. Archived from the original on 2013-01-11.
  5. Lopušina 2014, "PODACI Saveznog ureda za migraciju i izbeglice govore da u Nemačkoj živi oko pola miliona Srba. Državljanstvo matične države ima 350.000, a oko 150.000 nemačko.".
  6. "Srbi u Nemačkoj". Zentralrat der Serben in Deutschland. 2009. Archived from the original on 2015-12-08. Retrieved 2015-03-25. Samo u Nemačkoj živi oko 700.000 Srba, delom s nemačkim državljanstvom. U Nemačkoj se time koncentriše najveći broj srpskih doseljenika i njihovih potomaka novijeg vremena van Srbije.
  7. "Sloga gradi krovnu organizaciju Srba". Vesti. 2012-12-19. Dragana Bubulj, buduća doktorantkinja na Univerzitetu u Ludvigzburgu, iznela je zanimljive podatke o migratornom kretanju Srba i pozadinu fenomena "gastarbajter". Tako se čulo da ima 700.000 Srba u Nemačkoj
  8. Bilbija, Bojan (2013-12-29), Dijaspora može da promeni Srbiju, Politika, procenjeno brojno stanje u januaru 2012 [estimation in January 2012]
  9. "Serben-Demo eskaliert in Wien". 20 Minuten Online. 2008.
  10. "Srbi u Austriji traže status nacionalne manjine". Blic. 2010-10-02. "Srba u Austriji ima oko 300.000, po brojnosti su drugi odmah iza Austrijanaca i više ih je od Slovenaca, Mađara i Gradištanskih Hrvata zajedno, koji po državnom ugovoru iz 1955. godine imaju status nacionalne manjine u Austriji", navodi se u saopštenju.
  11. "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported – 2013 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 1 December 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  12. "Jugoslawen in der Schweiz" (PDF). SAEZ. 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-22. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  13. Palić, Svetlana (17 July 2011). "Četiri miliona Srba našlo uhlebljenje u inostranstvu". Blic. Švedskoj (110.000)
  14. "Sverige vill öppna Serbienförhandlingar" (in Swedish). SvD. 2015-02-02. Det bor cirka 120 000 serber i Sverige.
  15. Ranko Pivljanin (2011-11-24). "Orlovi vladaju Švedskom". Blic.
  16. "Srbi u Kanadi". Srpska Dijaspora. 2008. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-04-02. Smatra se da bi realno moglo biti 100.000 do 125.000 Srba u Kanadi.
  17. Mediaspora (2002). "Rezultat istrazivanja o broju Srpskih novinara i medija u svetu". Srpska dijaspora. Archived from the original on 2016-01-27. FRANCUSKA - 120 hiljada Srba
  18. "So, just how many Serbs live in Britain? Britić figures defy census figures of 2001". Ebritic.com. June 3, 2011.
  19. Stefanovic-Banovic, Milesa; Pantovic, Branislav (2013). "'Our' diaspora in Argentina: Historical overview and preliminary research" (PDF). Glasnik Etnografskog Instituta. 61: 119–131. doi:10.2298/GEI1301119S. На територији Републике Аргентине данас живи око 30 0002 људи српског и црногорског порекла, већим делом са простора данашње Црне Горе и Хрватске, а мањим делом из Србије и Босне и Херцеговине.
  20. "Afrika i Srbija na vezi". Blic. 26 Dec 2012. Od oko 20 000 Srba
  21. "Tab11. Populaţia stabilă după etnie şi limba maternă, pe categorii de localităţi". Rezultate Definitive_RPL_2011. Institutul Naţional de Statistică. 2011. Retrieved 2014-04-17.
  22. "Hungarian Census 2011". Központi Statisztikai Hivatal (KSH). 2011. Retrieved 2016-03-25. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  23. IOM 2008, p. 24.
  24. http://pxnet2.stat.fi/PXWeb/pxweb/fi/StatFin/StatFin__vrm__vaerak/statfin_vaerak_pxt_11rp.px/?rxid=6dc35a34-4036-4434-b6d5-1ba652fc92d6
  25. "1. НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ СОСТАВ НАСЕЛЕНИЯ" (PDF). Russian Federal State Statistics Service. 2010. Retrieved 2015-04-02. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  26. "Ethnic group". 2013 Census. Statistics New Zealand. Archived from the original on 2013-12-13.
  27. Lopušina 2014, "U Slovačkoj se, prema policijskim podacima momentalno nalazi 2.784 naših ljudi, koji su tu zbog spajanja rodbine, studiranja, rada ili nekog drugog razloga i još 800 ljudi srpskog porekla - tvrdi Stane Ribič, predsednik udruženja Srba u Slovačkoj.".
  28. "Inmigrantes Serbios en America Latina". Serbios Unidos (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 4 January 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
  29. "First pastoral visit to Serbs in Zambia". SPC. 29 May 2009.
  30. United States Census
  31. "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables". 2.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2014-04-17.
  32. Powell, John (2009). Encyclopedia of North American Immigration. Infobase Publishing. p. 267. ISBN 978-1-4381-1012-7.
  33. "Apel Srbima u Australiji da se jasno etnički odrede" (in Bosnian). Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  34. "2013" (PDF): 59. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)

Sources