Shading refers to the depiction of depth perception in 3D models (within the field of 3D computer graphics) or illustrations (in visual art) by varying the level of darkness.[1] Shading tries to approximate local behavior of light on the object's surface and is not to be confused with techniques of adding shadows, such as shadow mapping or shadow volumes, which fall under global behavior of light.

Flat shading describes a number of simple lighting techniques. In this case, the lighting value is determined once for each face. The color value can also be determined per object or per vertex.
Gouraud shading (1971) improved the appearance of curved objects.
Phong shading interpolation is a more realistic shading technique developed by Bui Tuong Phong in 1973.

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