Sichuan (/sɪˈwɑːn/;[5] Chinese: 四川, Mandarin: [sɹ̩̂.ʈʂʰwán]; alternatively romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan) is a landlocked province in Southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north and the Yungui Plateau to the south. Sichuan's capital city is Chengdu. The population of Sichuan stands at 83 million.

Sichuan Province
(clockwise from top)
Map showing the location of Sichuan Province
Coordinates: 30°08′N 102°56′E
(and largest city)
Divisions21 prefectures, 181 counties, 5011 townships
  BodySichuan Provincial People's Congress
  CCP SecretaryPeng Qinghua
  Congress chairmanPeng Qinghua
  GovernorHuang Qiang
  CPPCC chairmanKe Zunping
  Total485,000 km2 (187,000 sq mi)
Area rank5th
Highest elevation7,556 m (24,790 ft)
  Density170/km2 (450/sq mi)
  Density rank22nd
  Ethnic compositionHan – 95%
Yi – 2.6%
Tibetan – 1.5%
Qiang – 0.4%
Others - 0.5%
  Languages and dialectsSouthwestern Mandarin (Sichuanese dialects), Khams Tibetan, Hakka Chinese
ISO 3166 codeCN-SC
GDP (2020)CNY 4.86 trillion
USD 704 billion (6th)
 • per capitaCNY 58,029
USD 8,417 (16th)
HDI (2018)0.716[3] (high) (26th)
"Sichuan" in Chinese characters
Chinese name
Literal meaning"Four Plains"[4]
Tibetan name
Yi name
syp chuo
Former names
Ba (today's Chongqing municipalities) and Shu (today's Sichuan province)

In antiquity, Sichuan was the home of the ancient states of Ba and Shu. Their conquest by Qin strengthened it and paved the way for the Qin Shi Huang's unification of China under the Qin dynasty. During the Three Kingdoms era, Liu Bei's Shu was based in Sichuan. The area was devastated in the 17th century by Zhang Xianzhong's rebellion and the area's subsequent Manchu conquest, but recovered to become one of China's most productive areas by the 19th century. During World War II, Chongqing served as the temporary capital of the Republic of China, making it the focus of Japanese bombing. It was one of the last mainland areas captured by the People's Liberation Army during the Chinese Civil War and was divided into four parts from 1949 to 1952, with Chongqing restored two years later. It suffered gravely during the Great Chinese Famine of 1959–61 but remained China's most populous province until Chongqing Municipality was again separated from it in 1997.

The Han Chinese people of Sichuan speak a unique form of Mandarin, which took shape during the area's repopulation under the Ming. The family of dialects is now spoken by about 120 million people, which would make it the 10th most spoken language in the world if counted separately. The area's warm damp climate long caused Chinese medicine to advocate spicy dishes; the native Sichuan pepper helped to form modern Sichuan cuisine, whose dishes—including Kung Pao chicken and mapo tofu—have become staples of Chinese cuisine around the world.

In 1950, the province of Xikang was dissolved and its territory was later split between the newly established Tibet Autonomous Region and the Province of Sichuan. The western and northwestern part of Sichuan is made up of Tibetan and Qiang autonomous areas.