Sigmurethra


Sigmurethra is a taxonomic category of air-breathing land snails and slugs, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod molluscs. This is an informal group which includes most land snails and slugs.

Sigmurethra
Temporal range: Cretaceous–Recent
Various examples of Sigmurethra
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Subclass: Heterobranchia
Superorder: Eupulmonata
Order: Stylommatophora
Informal group: Sigmurethra
Superfamilies
Synonyms[1]

The two strong synapomorphies of Sigmurethra are a long pedal gland placed beneath a membrane and retractile tentacles.[2]

Several families in this group contain species of snails and slugs that create love darts.

Sigmurethra are known from the Cretaceous to the Recent periods.[3]

Taxonomy


2005 Taxonomy

In the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005, Sigmurethra is an "Informal Group", a subsection of the Stylommatophora.[4] It consists of the following families:

limacoid clade
Informal group Sigmurethra continued

Two superfamilies belongs to clade Sigmurethra, but they are not in the limacoid clade.

(Families that are exclusively fossil are indicated with a dagger †)

New families after 2005

2017 Taxonomy

After excluding groups not related, the informal group Sigmurethra becomes suborder Helicina, with the following nine infraorders and a collection of families with no superfamily:[6]

References


  1. MolluscaBase (2018). Helicina. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=994701 on 2018-02-22
  2. Lunarejo. et al. 2008.
  3. (in Czech) Pek I., Vašíček Z., Roček Z., Hajn. V. & Mikuláš R.: Základy zoopaleontologie. - Olomouc, 1996. 264 pp., ISBN 80-7067-599-3.
  4. Bouchet P. & Rocroi J.-P. (Ed.); Frýda J., Hausdorf B., Ponder W., Valdés Á. & Warén A. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia: International Journal of Malacology, 47(1-2). ConchBooks: Hackenheim, Germany. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. ISSN 0076-2997. 397 pp. http://www.vliz.be/Vmdcdata/imis2/ref.php?refid=78278
  5. Sutcharit C., Naggs F., Wade C. M., Fontanilla I. & Panha S. (2010). "The new family Diapheridae, a new species of Diaphera Albers from Thailand, and the position of the Diapheridae within a molecular phylogeny of the Streptaxoidea (Pulmonata: Stylommatophora)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 160: 1-16. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00598.x.
  6. Bouchet, Philippe; Rocroi, Jean-Pierre; Hausdorf, Bernhard; Kaim, Andrzej; Kano, Yasunori; Nützel, Alexander; Parkhaev, Pavel; Schrödl, Michael; Strong, Ellen E. (2017). "Revised Classification, Nomenclator and Typification of Gastropod and Monoplacophoran Families". Malacologia. 61 (1–2): 1–526. doi:10.4002/040.061.0201. ISSN 0076-2997. S2CID 91051256.
  7. Bieler R, Bouchet P, Gofas S, Marshall B, Rosenberg G, La Perna R, Neubauer TA, Sartori AF, Schneider S, Vos C, ter Poorten JJ, Taylor J, Dijkstra H, Finn J, Bank R, Neubert E, Moretzsohn F, Faber M, Houart R, Picton B, Garcia-Alvarez O, eds. (2018). "Helicoidei". MolluscaBase. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2018-08-01.
  8. Bieler R, Bouchet P, Gofas S, Marshall B, Rosenberg G, La Perna R, Neubauer TA, Sartori AF, Schneider S, Vos C, ter Poorten JJ, Taylor J, Dijkstra H, Finn J, Bank R, Neubert E, Moretzsohn F, Faber M, Houart R, Picton B, Garcia-Alvarez O, eds. (2018). "Oleacinoidei". MolluscaBase. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2018-08-01.
  9. Bieler R, Bouchet P, Gofas S, Marshall B, Rosenberg G, La Perna R, Neubauer TA, Sartori AF, Schneider S, Vos C, ter Poorten JJ, Taylor J, Dijkstra H, Finn J, Bank R, Neubert E, Moretzsohn F, Faber M, Houart R, Picton B, Garcia-Alvarez O, eds. (2018). "Haplotrematoidea H.B. Baker, 1925". MolluscaBase. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2018-08-01.