The Sikh Gurus (Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖ ਗੁਰੂ) are the spiritual masters of Sikhi, who established this religion over the course of about two and a half centuries, beginning in 1469. The year 1469 marks the birth of Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism. He was succeeded by nine other gurus until, in 1708, the Guruship was finally passed on by the tenth guru to the holy Sikh scripture, Guru Granth Sahib, which is now considered the living Guru by the followers of the Sikh faith.
Etymology and definition
Guru (//, UK also / -/,; Sanskrit: गुरु, Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ, IAST: guru) is a Sanskrit term for a "teacher, guide, expert, or master" of certain knowledge or field. Bhai Vir Singh, in his dictionary of Guru Granth Sahib describes the term Guru as a combination of two separate units: "Gu;(ਗੁ)" meaning darkness and "Rū;(ਰੂ)" which means light. Hence, Guru is who brings light into darkness or in other words, the one who enlightens.
Bhai Vir Singh's definition provides further insight about Sikhi itself and explains why Guru Granth Sahib is considered the living Guru. The word Sikh is derived from the Sanskrit term shishya(Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖ) which means a disciple or a student. Thus, Sikhs have a student–teacher relationship with their Gurus since their teachings, written in Guru Granth Sahib, serve as a guide for the sikhs.
|No.||Name||Portrait||Guruship||Date of birth||Place of birth||Father||Mother||Date of death||Reason|
|1||Guru Nanak Dev||Since birth||14 April 1469||Nankana Sahib, Punjab, Delhi Sultanate||Kalyan Das Bedi||Mata Tripta||22 September 1539 (aged 70)||Natural causes||Kartarpur, Punjab, Mughal Empire|
|2||Guru Angad Dev||7 September 1539||31 March 1504||Muktsar, Punjab, Mughal Empire||Baba Pheru Mal||Mata Ramo||29 March 1552 (aged 47)||Natural causes||Khadur Sahib, Punjab, Mughal Empire|
|3||Guru Amar Das||26 April 1552||5 May 1479||Amritsar, Punjab, Mughal Empire||Tej Bhan Bhalla||Mata Lachmi||1 September 1574 (aged 95)||Natural causes||Goindval, Lahore Subah, Mughal Empire|
|4||Guru Ram Das||1 September 1574||24 September 1534||Lahore, Punjab, Mughal Empire||Baba Har Das||Mata Daya||1 September 1581 (aged 46)||Natural causes||Goindval, Lahore Subah, Mughal Empire|
|5||Guru Arjan Dev||1 September 1581||15 April 1563||Goindval, Punjab, Mughal Empire||Guru Ram Das||Mata Bhani||30 May 1606 (aged 43)||Execution by Mughal Emperor Jahangir||Lahore, Lahore Subah, Mughal Empire|
|6||Guru Hargobind||25 May 1606||19 June 1595||Amritsar, Lahore Subah, Mughal Empire||Guru Arjan Dev||Mata Ganga||28 February 1644 (aged 48)||Natural causes||Kiratpur Sahib, Lahore Subah, Mughal Empire|
|7||Guru Har Rai||3 March 1644||16 January 1630||Kiratpur Sahib, Lahore Subah, Mughal Empire||Baba Gurditta||Mata Nihal Kaur||6 October 1661 (aged 31)||Natural causes||Delhi, Delhi Subah, Mughal Empire|
|8||Guru Har Krishan||7 October 1661||7 July 1656||Kiratpur Sahib, Lahore Subah, Mughal Empire||Guru Har Rai||Mata Krishan Kaur||30 March 1664 (aged 7)||Smallpox||Delhi, Delhi Subah, Mughal Empire|
|9||Guru Tegh Bahadur||20 March 1664||1 April 1621||Amritsar, Lahore Subah, Mughal Empire||Guru Hargobind||Mata Nanaki||11 November 1675 (aged 54)||Execution by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb||Delhi, Delhi Subah, Mughal Empire|
|10||Guru Gobind Singh||11 November 1675||22 December 1666||Patna Sahib, Bihar Subah, Mughal Empire||Guru Tegh Bahadur||Mata Gujri||7 October 1708 (aged 41)||Assassination by Jamshed Khan and Wasil Beg||Hazur Sahib, Bidar Subah, Mughal Empire|
Timeline of Sikh Gurus
- The Sikhs. E.J. Brill. p. 38. ISBN 9004095543.
- Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 186–187. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
- The Sikhs : faith, philosophy & folk. Lustre Press. ISBN 9788174360373.
- Stefan Pertz (2013), The Guru in Me - Critical Perspectives on Management, GRIN Verlag, ISBN 978-3638749251, pages 2-3
- Singh, Veer (1964). Sri Guru Granth Kosh. p. 122.
- World religions : from ancient history to the present. ISBN 978-0-87196-129-7.
- officially observed on Katak Puranmashi (October–November)
- Listed names and relations might vary from source to source since different aspects of Sikh history have been written by many different individuals over the course of past six centuries.