South Dakota

South Dakota (/- dəˈktə/ (listen)) (Sioux: Dakȟóta itókaga) is a U.S. state in the upper Midwestern United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux Native American tribes, who comprise a large portion of the population and historically dominated the territory. South Dakota is the seventeenth largest by area, but the 5th least populous, and the 5th least densely populated of the 50 United States. As the southern part of the former Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889, simultaneously with North Dakota. They are the 39th and 40th states admitted to the union; President Benjamin Harrison shuffled the statehood papers before signing them so that no one could tell which became a state first.[10] Pierre is the state capital, and Sioux Falls, with a population of about 187,200,[11] is South Dakota's largest city.

South Dakota
Dakȟóta itókaga (Sioux)
State of South Dakota
Nickname(s): 
The Mount Rushmore State (official)
Motto(s): 
Under God the People Rule
Anthem: "Hail, South Dakota!"
Map of the United States with South Dakota highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodDakota Territory
Admitted to the UnionNovember 2, 1889 (40th (but see text))
CapitalPierre
Largest citySioux Falls
Largest metro and urban areasSioux Falls
Government
  GovernorKristi Noem (R)
  Lieutenant GovernorLarry Rhoden (R)
LegislatureSouth Dakota Legislature
  Upper houseSenate
  Lower houseHouse of Representatives
JudiciarySouth Dakota Supreme Court
U.S. senatorsJohn Thune (R)
Mike Rounds (R)
U.S. House delegationDusty Johnson (R) (list)
Area
  Total77,116[1] sq mi (199,729 km2)
  Land75,811 sq mi (196,350 km2)
  Water1,305 sq mi (3,379 km2)  1.7%
Area rank17th
Dimensions
  Length380 mi (610 km)
  Width210 mi (340 km)
Elevation
2,200 ft (670 m)
Highest elevation7,244 ft (2,208 m)
Lowest elevation968 ft (295 m)
Population
 (2020)
  Total886,667
  Rank46th
  Density11.50/sq mi (4.44/km2)
  Density rank46th
  Median household income
$56,521[5]
  Income rank
30th
Demonym(s)South Dakotan
Language
  Official languageEnglish, O'ceti Sakowin[6]
  Spoken languageEnglish, Spanish (2.06%), Dakota[7][8] (1.39%), German (1.37%)[9]
Time zones
eastern halfUTC−06:00 (Central)
  Summer (DST)UTC−05:00 (CDT)
western halfUTC−07:00 (Mountain)
  Summer (DST)UTC−06:00 (MDT)
USPS abbreviation
SD
ISO 3166 codeUS-SD
Traditional abbreviationS.D., S.Dak.
Latitude42°29′ N to 45°56′ N
Longitude96°26′ W to 104°03′ W
Websitesd.gov
South Dakota state symbols
Living insignia
BirdRing-necked pheasant
FishWalleye
FlowerAmerican Pasque flower
GrassWestern wheat grass
InsectWestern honeybee
MammalCoyote
TreeBlack Hills Spruce
Inanimate insignia
BeverageMilk
DanceSquare dance
FossilTriceratops
GemstoneFairburn agate
RockRose quartz
SoilHoudek
OtherKuchen (state dessert)
State route marker
State quarter
Released in 2006
Lists of United States state symbols

South Dakota is bordered by the states of North Dakota (to the north), Minnesota (to the east), Iowa (to the southeast), Nebraska (to the south), Wyoming (to the west), and Montana (to the northwest). The state is bisected by the Missouri River, dividing South Dakota into two geographically and socially distinct halves, known to residents as "East River" and "West River".[12]

Eastern South Dakota is home to most of the state's population, and the area's fertile soil is used to grow a variety of crops. West of the Missouri River, ranching is the predominant agricultural activity, and the economy is more dependent on tourism and defense spending. Most of the Native American reservations are in West River. The Black Hills, a group of low pine-covered mountains sacred to the Sioux, is in the southwest part of the state. Mount Rushmore, a major tourist destination, is there. South Dakota has a temperate continental climate, with four distinct seasons and precipitation ranging from moderate in the east to semi-arid in the west. The state's ecology features species typical of a North American grassland biome.

Humans have inhabited the area for several millennia, with the Sioux becoming dominant by the early 19th century. In the late 19th century, European-American settlement intensified after a gold rush in the Black Hills and the construction of railroads from the east. Encroaching miners and settlers triggered a number of Indian wars, ending with the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890. Key events in the 20th century included the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, increased federal spending during the 1940s and 1950s for agriculture and defense, and an industrialization of agriculture that has reduced family farming.

While several Democrats have represented South Dakota for multiple terms in both chambers of Congress, the state government is largely controlled by the Republican Party, whose nominees have carried South Dakota in each of the last 13 presidential elections. Historically dominated by an agricultural economy and a rural lifestyle, South Dakota has recently sought to diversify its economy in areas to attract and retain residents. South Dakota's history and rural character still influence strongly the state's culture.