South Sudan

South Sudan (/sˈdɑːn, -ˈdæn/), officially the Republic of South Sudan,[17] is a landlocked country in East Africa.[18][19][20] It is bordered by Ethiopia, Sudan, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, and Kenya. Its population was estimated at 10,913,164 in 2022. Juba is the capital and largest city.

8°N 30°E
Republic of South Sudan
"Justice, Liberty, Prosperity"
"South Sudan Oyee!"
South Sudan in dark green, disputed regions in light green
and largest city
04°51′N 31°36′E
Official languagesEnglish[1]
Recognised national languages
and around 60 other languages
[note 1]
Spoken languages[3]
Demonym(s)South Sudanese
GovernmentFederal authoritarian transitional presidential republic[9]
Salva Kiir Mayardit
Riek Machar
Jemma Nunu Kumba
Chan Reec Madut
LegislatureTransitional National Legislature
Council of States
Transitional National Legislative Assembly
from Sudan
9 July 2005
9 July 2011
644,329 km2 (248,777 sq mi) (41st)
 2023 estimate
12,118,379[10] (82nd)
13.33/km2 (34.5/sq mi) (214th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
Decrease$13.6 billion [11] (157th)
 Per capita
Decrease$934[11] (191st)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
Decrease$4.7 billion [11] (164th)
 Per capita
Decrease $326[11] (194th)
Gini (2016)Positive decrease 44.1[12]
HDI (2021)Decrease 0.385[13]
low · 191st
CurrencySouth Sudanese pound (SSP)
Time zoneUTC+2 (Central Africa Time)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright[14]
Calling code+211[15]
ISO 3166 codeSS
  1. Registered and operational since 2019

South Sudan gained independence from Sudan on 9 July 2011, making it the most recent sovereign state or country with widespread recognition as of 2023.[21] It includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd, formed by the White Nile and known locally as the Bahr al Jabal, meaning "Mountain River".[22] Sudan was occupied by Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty and was governed as an Anglo-Egyptian condominium until Sudanese independence in 1956. Following the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. A second Sudanese civil war soon broke out in 1983 and ended in 2005 with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. Later that year, southern autonomy was restored when an Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed. South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011, following 98.83% support for independence in a January 2011 referendum.[23][24] It has suffered ethnic violence and endured a civil war characterized by rampant human rights abuses, including various ethnic massacres and killings of journalists by various parties to the conflict from December 2013 until February 2020, when competing combat leaders Salva Kiir Mayardit and Riek Machar struck a unity deal and formed a coalition government,[25] paving the way for refugees to return home.[26]

South Sudan is one of the least developed countries in the world, and as of 2022 also one of the poorest countries by GDP per capita.[27] The South Sudanese population is composed mostly of Nilotic peoples, and it is demographically among the youngest nations in the world, with roughly half under 18 years old.[28] The majority of inhabitants adhere to Christianity or various Indigenous faiths. The country is a member of the United Nations,[29][30] the African Union,[31] the East African Community,[32] and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development.[33]

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